By Prof. L. Kaliambos (Natural Philosopher in New Energy)

This article was announced to many universities around the world.(May 2012).

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my papers “Impact of Maxwell’s equations..dipolic particles” (1993) which invalidates Maxwell's fields and relativity, and “Nuclear structure..electromagnetism” (2003) in which a large number of integral equations revealed the force and the structure of nuclei .(See in "User Kaliambos " the above published papers along with our additional published paper "Spin-spin interactions of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures"). Note that the paper of 2003 was also presented at a nuclear conference held in NCSR "Democritos" (2002)

**ACCORDING TO MY DISCOVERY OF THE NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE WHICH REJECTS EINSTEIN (EXPERIMENTS REJECT RELATIVITY) ACCELERATIONS AND PRODUCTIONS OF UNSTABLE PARTICLES ARE GOVERNED BY THE UNIFIED NATURAL LAWS WITH FORCES ACTING AT A DISTANCE UNDER THE QUANTUM DYNAMICS OF PARTIALLY ORIENTED SPINS OF QUARKS, SINCE ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE BOTH ENSTEIN’S ** **RELATIVITY AND THE STANDARD MODEL BASED ON THE WRONG QUARK TRIAD AND GLUONS WITH STRANGE COLOR CHARGES. ALSO ACCORDING TO THE BASIC PRINCIPLE OF THE MATTER-PHOTON TRANSFORMATION THE SO-CALLED GOD PARTICLES WERE NOT THE HYPOTHETICAL HIGGS BOSONS, SINCE THE VERY EARLY UNIVERSE WAS DOMINATED BY NEUTRAL (dud) QUARK TRIADS,WHICH FORMED HADRONS, LEPTONS, AND PHOTONS.**

**CUNFUSING RESULTS TO TEST EINSTEIN’S WRONG RELATIVITY**

In September, 2011 CERN - OPERA researchers publicly announced that they observed velocities (u ) of neutrinos greater than the speed c of light. Later the team reported two errors which caused the apparently faster-than-light measurements. In March 2012 the ICARUS experiment refuted the OPERA results by measuring neutrino velocities less than light (u<c).

Of course, after the initial report, Weinberg, Smoot, Rubbia, and other physicists expressed skepticism about the accuracy of results on the basis that the experiment challenged Einstein’s theory of special relativity. However this theory was invalidated dramatically by experiments of atomic physics. (See in Google our papers “INVALIDITY OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY ” and “WRONG AND CORRECT THEORIES IN PHYSICS ”. In fact, the latest results of March, 2012 are consistent not with the wrong special relativity but with the application of the well-established natural laws of Newton Coulomb and Biot-Savart with forces acting at a distance. For example using the second law of Newton under the Quantum Dynamics we see that it leads to the principle of the Photon-Matter Transformation:

hν/m = ΔW/ΔM = c^{2}.

It is well-known that Nichols and Hull in 1902 found experimentally the relation dW/dP = c which leads to the above principle by the application of the well-established second law of Newton on a mass M as

Fds = dw = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = ud(Mu) .

However for a photon, since u = c, Newton’s second law is applied on its variable mass m as

dw = cd(mc) = dmc^{2} or dw/dm = c^{2} or hν/m = c^{2}

This relation is very important because it explains not only the gravitational frequency shift but also the unification of gravity and electromagnetism, while the hypothesis of general relativity involves wrong assumptions. (See in Google our paper “UNIFIED FORCES SOLVE THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS ”). It is also important for special systems of non conservative forces (absorption of photons) in which we discovered the principle of the Photon-Matter Transformation

hν/m = ΔW/ΔΜ = c^{2}

which explains the Kaufmann experiment (1903).

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2}).

Note that Lorentz (1904) and Einstein (1905) tried to interpret the Kaufmann experiment by using the wrong assumptions of the ether and the relative motion of a particle with respect to an observer respectively. In fact, under the absorption of an energy with non conservative forces both the mass M and the velocity u of the particle increase as

dW = ud(Mu) = u(Mdu + udM).

Indeed by differentiating the relation

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

one gets 2MdMc^{2}= 2uduMM + 2MdMuu

Or dMc^{2}= u(Mdu + udM) = dW.

Also the time-varying fields E_{y}/B_{z}= c of a photon lead to the same Photon-Matter Transformation, when it interacts with a charged particle. (See in Google our scientific paper “PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION ”).

Meanwhile in a detailed analysis of the Bohr model we revealed that the experiments of the mass defect invalidate Einstein’s hypothesis of relative motions with respect to a randomly moving observer, since in mechanical conservative systems during the transformations of the potential into the kinetic energy the rest mass M_{o}of a particle remains constant. However under the quantum jump the mass of a moving electron around the nucleus becomes less than the rest mass (mass defect). Thus, Newton’s second law for a particle is always correct no matter what is the velocity u, since the kinetic energy is written as

dW = uM_{o}du or W = M_{o}u^{2}/2

In other words the Kaufmann experiment is interpreted by applying natural laws, while Einstein’s relativity leads to the fallacious idea of Energy-mass conservation which retarded the progress of physics. For example in the wrong explanation of the so-called annihilation

e^{- }+ e^{+} = γ + γ

Einstein believed that the rest mass (M_{o} + M_{o}) of electron and positron is transformed into the energies (hν+hν) of two photons. In fact, the energy U = -1.022 MeV of the charge-charge interaction of the system electron-positron is transformed into the energies (hν +hν) = 1.022 MeV of photons. Meanwhile during this transformation the rest mass (M_{o}+M_{o}) = 1.022 MeV of the particles is transformed into the variable mass (m+m ) = 1.022 MeV of two photons. Thus the so-called “annihilation” is a fallacious idea which retarded the progress of physics.

The same situation we observe also in the opposite process (pair production). That is, the variable mass m of a photon at high energies can be transformed into the mass of leptons when it interacts with a nucleus.

γ + nucleus = 1.022 MeV = (M_{o} +M_{o}) =1.022 MeV.

Furthermore when a photon of mass m = 13.6 eV interacts electromagnetically with the orbiting electron of mass M =(511000-13.6) eV it is absorbed giving its mass to the electron which gets a rest mass M_{o} = 511 KeV. That is M<M_{o}which invalidates dramatically the special relativity.

Another fallacious idea which did much to retard the progress of physics is the concept of Maxwell’S fields and the idea of force carriers. In fact, according to the basic laws of Newton Coulomb and Ampere in nature exist only masses and charges acting at a distance with simple forces. For example using the fundamental law of Coulomb F_{e} = KQq/r^{2}the field E was defined as

E = F_{e}/q =KQ/r^{2} or E = F_{e} = KQ/r^{2}when q=1

That is, E is the same force F_{e}acting at a distance when q =1. However the strange hypothesis that E or a virtual photon of Feynman(1950) could be a force carrier leads to the strange idea that forces could be transmitted by the same forces per unit charges. So according to natural laws not only the variable mass of photons is transformed into the mass of particles but also they interact with simple forces acting at a distance. In other words photons cannot be force carriers but only mass carriers or energy carriers.

**CONFUSING IDEAS TO FIND THE WRONG GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND GRAVITONS**Edit

Although Newton’s laws do not allow any mediator of gravitational forces many physicist at CERN believe that they will discover the false gravitational waves proposed by Einstein in 1916 on the basis of his wrong theory of general relativity. Under such fallacious ideas the Standard Model (1973) postulated new bosons that is, the existence of **massless gravitons**(G).

In 2008 CERN announced that the Standard Model over time and through many experiments has become established as a well-tested physics theory. Thus the hypothetical **massless graviton** (G) should be the corresponding force-carrying particle of gravity. However reading the article of CERN in Google (2008) “CERN-secret dimensions” one can see the question **Does its carrier, the graviton, exist and where? **On the other hand** **in April, 2010 Tomasso Donigo working at CERN and the CDF experiment at Fermilab (Chicago) announced that the CDF Collaboration blessed the results of a search for **massive gravitons**decaying into pairs of Z bosons. (See in Google “CDF Discovers The Graviton”).

**CONFUSING IDEAS TO FIND WRONG GLUONS**

Historically, despite the enormous success of the Bohr model and the Schroedinger equations due to the applications of the second law of Newton and the electromagnetic interaction, physicists abandoned the well-established natural laws and developed wrong theories after the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutrons, neutrinos, and antineutrinos. So in the absence of natural laws, Heisenberg (1932), Fermi (1934), Yukawa (1935), Glashow (1968), and Gell-Mann (1973) developed the wrong theories of strong and weak interactions, using the fallacious concept of force carriers. Especially after the failure of Heisenberg’s exchange forces, Yukawa using the uncertainty relation of Heisenberg formulated the following familiar formula

M = h/2πRc

by assuming that the nuclear force is not an interaction of electromagnetism but it is due to the exchange of massive particles with a mass M about 200 times greater than the mass M_{e }of electrons since the range (distance R) is about 2 fm (nuclear distance). Thus when the muons of mass M =200 M_{e} were discovered (1936) many physicists believed that they were the Yukawa particles, but later the discovered pions (1947) of mass 273 M_{e} were assumed to be the real particles of Yukawa, because they have an integer spin like photons. Of course in the above formula using M = 0 we get forces of long range if one assumes that the mediators are massless photons. However photons never have zero mass, because they have an energy hνwhich implies a variable mass able to be transformed into the mass of electrons and other particles.

Later, after the development of the simple quark model Gell-Mann (1964) discovered the fractional charges of spinning quarks but he did not use the detailed nuclear experiments of the magnetic moments of nucleons (1957) for finding the structure of protons and neutrons in terms of spinning quarks or charge distributions which lead to the nuclear structure under the applications of the basic electromagnetic laws.

Unfortunately he suggested that the neutron consists of two down quarks (d) and one up (u) written in the scheme (dud) which gives zero charge, while the experiments of the magnetic moment of neutron imply charge distributions. Moreover the proton was written with the scheme (uud) which gives smaller magnetic moment than that of experiments. Also the experiments showed that such triads have a mass about 1% of the mass of each nucleon. (We discovered that d = 3.69 MeV and u = 2.4 MeV). Under this condition in 1973 Gell-Mann in order to justify such an enormous mass defect used the wrong theory of relativity and developed his theory of the Quantum Chromodynamics. According to that theory the nucleons consist also of wrong massless gluons (g) like the following schemes

M_{n}= ( dud + g) = 939.57 MeV

M_{p}= ( uud + g) = 938.28 MeV

Note that g represents an unknown number of massless gluons which could give the 99% of the mass of nucleons under Einstein’s false transformation of the hypothetical gluon energy into the mass of nucleons.

Since the energy cannot be converted into mass, in 2002 we analyzed carefully the experiments of the magnetic moments of nucleons and the deep inelastic scattering experiments and discovered 9 extra quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron, which led to the discovery of 288 quarks in nucleons (See my NEW ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS . Also the charges of extra quarks interact electromagnetically like the dipole-dipole interactions to give the nuclear binding and the nuclear structure. In fact, the so-called “strong interaction” of the nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. The same laws obey also the antineutrino absorption, since it has a negative magnetic moment with opposite charges which interact with the fractional charges of spinning quarks.

Under this condition the total masses of quarks in the structure of neutron and proton are written as

M_{n}= [ 92(dud) + 4u + 8d ] = 939.57 MeV

M_{p}= [ 93(dud) + 4u + 5d ] = 938.26 MeV

Such structures of nucleons can explain not only the decay of neutron with 92 (dud) uncharged triads but also the nuclear binding after the electromagnetic interaction of the charges of extra quarks.

It is indeed unfortunate that although in 1964 Gell-Mann showed that his spinning quarks have fractional charges of the basic electromagnetic laws he tried to explain the binding of quarks and the nuclei with his hypothetical massless gluons. Of course it was a confusing idea because the nuclear forces of short range seemed to be explained in 1935 by the Yukawa formula, which cannot be used for the assumed massless gluons at distances smaller than the nuclear size. In the absence of applications of natural laws also in 1973 Gell-Mann suggested the strange hypothetical color charges and strange color forces though the spinning charges of quarks give forces of short range like the dipole-dipole interactions.

Under such fallacious ideas in 1979 researchers at the electron-positron collider (PETRA) announced that they observed 3-jet (3 particles) events at high energy which could support the hypothesis of the (colored) gluons. After thirty years (on 15 July, 2009) John Ellis (CERN COURIER) recalled in his report “Those were the days: discovering the gluon” how theorists and experimentalists worked together to find gluon. However on September 30, 2009 (CERN COURIER) Chen, Director, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, announced that no one is able to conclude the discovery of the gluon (g) based on such events.

**CONFUSING IDEAS TO FIND THE FALLACIOUS HIGGS FIELD**Edit

According to natural laws the potential and kinetic energies exist with masses or charges giving forces acting at a distance. So after a careful analysis of nuclear and quark experiments we showed that the so-called strong and weak interactions involve fundamental forces of electromagnetism. Like the interaction of a photon with an electron we observe also the absorption of an energetic antineutrino (ν^{-}) of negative magnetic moment with mass m =1.8 MeV of unlike charges, like a neutron, which interact electromagnetically with the charged quark u according to the reaction

ν^{-} + u = d + e^{+}

So the conserved mass in MeV is written as

1.8 + 2.4 = 3.69 + 0.51

Note that the beta decay, which is similar to the Photon-Matter Transformation, was incorrectly explained by Fermi, who in 1934 developed the hypothesis of weak interaction with unknown forces of no range and no mediators. Under this confusion physicists also assumed that the empty space (without mass or charge) has energy and the energy from the vacuum would be transferred into the particles giving mass.

During the 1960s Peter Higgs and other physicists following the same fallacious ideas proposed a hypothetical Higgs field, which works as a medium that exist everywhere in space and the particles gain mass by interacting with this medium, like the Aristotelian false ether which did much to retard the progress of physics for many centuries. As a result such a hypothetical field could not predict the mass of any hypothetical boson. Note that the original article of Peter Higgs was rejected by Physical Review Letters, because it did not predict any new detectable effects. So he added a sentence at the end , mentioning that it implies **the existence of one or more new massive scalar bosons, which do not form complete representation of the symmetry**.

Of course it allows us to see how modern theoretical physics works. Peter Higgs assumed a fallacious field (medium), but then, to save the publication, added a slapdash prediction of particles, which did not form complete representations of the symmetry. This means that the particles were not a necessary outcome of the mathematics. So he did not predict the masses of the particles. Moreover according to the Standard Model at a critical temperature the Higgs field becomes a tachyonic field with hypothetical tachyons proposesed by Feinberg in 1967. Note that tachyons cannot exist, since they violate the natural laws to move faster than the speed of light. Nevertheless researchers at CERN try to find the fallacious Higgs field at any position of very high energies above the 100 GeV

Meanwhile during the 1960s Glashow, Weinberg, and Salam using the hypothesis of a spontaneous symmetry breaking of the Higgs field assumed that the hypothetical massless bosons of the electroweak theory of Glashow could be massive force carriers of the Fermi unknown forces of very short range, since the wrong electroweak theory under a mathematical symmetry could not predict massive particles. So the electroweak theory combined with results from new experiments was able to describe the so- called massive bosons W and Z like the discovered pions which seem to be predicted by Yukawa. (See in Google “W and Z at CERN”).

It is of interest to note that the Standard Model still contains many arbitrary paremeters that come from experiments. To learn more how the electroweak theory used similar experiments to predict the W and Z bosons please read carefully the following sentence taken from the Google " High Energy Physics Group History-UA2" **Furthermore using existing measurements the theory predicted the masses of the W and Z bosons. Armed with this knowledge experiments were devised to detect and measure the properties of those new particles**. In other words, it seems to be like a doctor who examines a pregnant and predicts the birth of a baby, but the baby cannot be a mediator in a dispute. In 1973 the huge Gargamelle bubble chamber photographed the tracks of a few electrons suddenly starting to move, and this was interpreted, by the electroweak theory, as a neutrino interacting with the electron by the exchange of an unseen Z boson. In fact, the opposite charges of spinning neutrinos interact with electric and magnetic forces with the charges of spinning electrons. So they do not need any mediator force of the fallacious weak and electroweak interactions.

Then Carlo Rubbia who discovered the particles in 1983 did not tell us that they were taking part in any beta decay, because the experiments which led to the prediction of bosons had not tied such bosons of enormous masses to the beta decay of light mass particles. That is, according to the theory we have a huge amount of energy coming from nowhere and then dissapearing into nothing. In fact, such bosons are not force carriers but mass carriers or energy carriers. For example the top quark (t) can decay to a bottom quark (b) and to the boson W according to the reaction

t = b + W.

Indeed, according to natural laws in nature exist only forces acting at a distance, while the concept of field in terms of a medium covering the free space and the corresponding force-carrying particles are fallacious ideas. In 2008 CERN announced a technical problem for discovering the hypothetical Higgs boson. In 2010 the physicists announced that the particle should exist within the range 158-175 GeV. It is of interest to note that CERN on 30 Aug, 2011 announced that the Higgs boson probably cannot exist. Also in a seminar on December 13, 2011 the physicists announced that have no hope of seeing the field itself. So they search instead for its signature particle within the range 115-127 GeV. According to the Higgs theory the Higgs field a trillionth of a second after the big bang blasted the universe into existence. Before this moment it is believed incorrectly that all of the particles in the cosmos weighed nothing.

In fact, the mass of the particles in the universe is the same mass as that of all photons which were able to give their mass to particles under the principle of Photon-Matter Transformation . At very high temperatures the non oriented spins of quarks cannot give magnetic attraction, while at a lower critical temperature, the partially oriented spins of quarks are able to give magnetic attractions stronger than the electric repulsions for the formation of the unstable particles like the unstable quantum states of orbiting electrons. It is of interest to note that under the Photon-Matter Transformation the electrons cannot move faster than the speed of light. Nevertheless the peripheral velocities of spinning electrons are greater than the speed of light responsible for the coupling of two electrons of opposite spin in orbitals. Also in nucleons the very strong binding of spinning up and down quarks is due to the stronger magnetic attractions than those of the electric forces, since the peripheral velocities of oriented spins are greater than the speed of light.