By prof. L. Kaliambos (Natural Philosopher in New Energy)

31 January 2019

After my published paper "Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism" (2003) today it is well known that all experiments of atomic and nuclear physics reject fields and relativity. (EXPERIMENTS REJECTING EINSTEIN). Note that the paper was aslso presented at a nuclear conference held at NCSR "Demokritos" (2002) which led to the correct nuclear structure, while after the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron (1932) the abandonment of electromagnetic laws led to various invalid nuclear theories based on invalid fields of relativity.

**EXPERIMENTS REJECT FIELDS AND RELATIVITY **

It** **is of interest to note that in 1993 at the international conference "Frontiers of fundamental physics" I presented my discovery of dipole nature of photons invalidating fields and relativity. At the same conference I presented also **the French-Tessman experiment (1963) showing the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields in favor of Newton's particles of light. Historically the first experiment which confirmed Newton’s action at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity was that of Cavendish ( 1798). Moreover in 1801 Soldner confirmed Newton’s prediction of bending of light based on the action at a distance by calculating the amount of deflection of a light ray by a star. However, though Newton in his particles predicted vibrations, the experiments of Young (1803) and the wave theory of Fresnel led to the false ether, and to the concept of field (1832) introduced by Faraday, who went on to fill all space around currents with fallacious stretched rubber bands called lines of force. So among many physicists in 1856 Sir George Airy wrote that according to the experiments of the laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) involving charges q and Q and currents I and i respectively given by </p>
**

F_{e} = KQq/r^{2} and F_{m} =( k2 I/r )

the forces acting at a distance are simple and clear, while the Faraday fields are vague and complicated lines. For example in the Coulomb law the real vector E of the electric intencity cannot be a mediator of the electric force because for q = 1 we obtain the electric intensity E which represents the same force when q =1. (INTENSITY AND FALSE FIELD). Note that in the same year (1856) Weber showed experimentally that K/k = c^{2} .

Nevertheless Maxwell in 1865 following the false ether and the Faraday field concept (which violates Newton's third law) developed his wrong theory of electromagnetic waves, which led to the wrong theories of relativity and to the force carriers mediating incorrectly the wrong strong and weak forces developed after the abandonment of the real electromagnetic laws.

Meanwhile in 1832 Faraday confirmed Newton’s principle of relativity in his induction law, because the magnetic resultant, emf, is the same due to the relative motion of magnets and conductors, no matter what material is moving. Note that Faraday summarizes his results in the following paragraph: "All these results show that the power of inducing electric current is circumferentially excited by a magnetic resultant* .."* Also the experiments showed that his induction law is consistent with the magnetic force of the Ampere law. That is, the experiments of the so-called motional emf confirm the interaction at a distance and invalidate the field concept. However Maxwell not only used the wrong concept of the displacement current but also violated the principle of relativity by suggesting the propagation of a fallacious electric field when the magnet moves with respect to the conductor. The same false ideas used also by Einstein in his introduction of the invalid special relativity, which violates the principle of relativity in the induction law.

On the other hand the Michelson - Morley experiment (1887) rejected the Cartesian ether in favor of Newton's third law of instantaneous action-reaction, and the principle of relativity deduced from his laws according to which the particles of light behave like particles having mass. Note that in the Newtonian Mechanics of conservative forces we apply the fundamental equation F = M_{o}(du/dt) in which the inertial mass M_{o }of a moving body remains always constant. For example when the velocity c of a photon is perpendicular to the gravitational force we may explain the bending of light near the sun. In this case the mass of a photon remains constant under the acceleration in the direction of the gravitational force.That is, it invalidates Einstein's postulation that the particles of light move always at the same velocity. However in the Quantum physics of non conservative forces we apply the variable mass M of Newton's third law to see that the mass of the photon during the motion behaves like a particle a variable mass m. For example when the velocity c of a photon is parallel to the gravitational force we apply the variable mass M of Newton's second law F = d(Mu)/dt. In this case since the velocity c is always constant we may write

F = dp/dt = d(mc)/dt = dm(c)/dt or FdS = dW = (dmc)c = dmc^{2} = hdν

This fact led to my discovery of the photon mass which invalidates Einstein's relativity. For example in the correct explanation of the photoelectric effect the absorption of the photon contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy but also to the incrrease of the electron mass under a quantum length contraction and a quantum time dilation. (Discovery of length contraction). In contrast, the Lorentz transformation, based not only on the fallacious ether but also on an additional strange hypothesis of a length contraction of the Michelson interferometer , led to the false special relativity. (Invalid Lorentz transformations) Note that Einstein in 1905 replaced the ether by the Faraday vacuum assumed to transmit the wrong Maxwell's fields. Whereas in his general relativity (1915) he introduced the fallacious gravitational wave under a wrong non-Euclidian geometry of vacuum, which have never been observed. Thus, despite the confusion about the ether he believed that his wrong relativity is a general law which was able to modify the natural laws.

**THE EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY OF FORCES INVALIDATES FIELDS AND RELATIVITY AND REVEALS THE DIPOLE NATURE OF PHOTONS**

It is well-known that the gravitational and electric forces work with a simple Eucledian geometry along a straight line, whereas for calculating the magnetic force on moving point charges the math seems more complicated. For this reason in 1832, Faraday for interpreting his induction law introduced the wrong concept of field which led to the fallacious fields of Maxwell, Higgs, etc. ( See my paper INVALIDITY OF HIGGS BOSON ).

In general, when two positive point charges Q and q (separated by a distance r) move with velocities u and υ respectively, the vector F_{m} on the moving q is given by applying the Biot-Savart law :

F_{m }= (kQusinφ/r^{2})qυsinθ = Bqυsinθ

Here φ is the angle between the vectors u and r, and θ is the angle between the vector υ and the vector B. In a detailed analysis of this problem we see that the vector u and the distance r form a plane (ur) with a perpendicular line (vector B) at q. However according to the Ampere law involving forces acting at a distance we may represent the plane (ur) by a simple xy plane where Q is at the point of the intersection of axes with the vector u pointing to +x. In this case the above expression can be written as

F_{m }= kQusinφqυcosα/r^{2 }

Here sinφ gives the projection of r on the y axis, while υcosα is the projection of υ on the xy plane. Now it is well-known that according to the experiments the vector F_{m} is perpendicular to both υ and υcosa. So it lies in the xy plane and points always to the right direction with respect to the vector υcosα, when the r is projected on +y. Whereas the projection on –y gives a vector F_{m} (on moving q), pointing always to the left direction with respect to the vector υcosα. In the same way we can determine the F_{m} on the moving Q by starting with the plane (υr). That is, to calculate the quantity and the direction of F_{m }acting at a distance the introduction of B by Faraday is unnecessary, because we use the two real planes of the Euclidean geometry formed by the velocities with respect to the r. Whereas Einstein in his General relativity suggested a strange non- Euclidean geometry for gravity though the gravitational forces have the same geometry of electric ones. Such a Euclidean geometry of electromagnetism led us to study the mutual electromagnetic forces of a moving dipole. A pair of equal and opposite point charges (+q , -q ) separated by a distance r is called a dipole. When it moves at a velocity u perpendicular to r, the applications of the laws of electromagnetism (without using the concept of the Faraday fields) give an attractive electric force F_{e} and a repulsive magnetic force F_{m} . Here F_{e}and F_{m} are given by simple relations because Q = - q, and sinφ = cosα = 1. Thus we write

F_{e} = Kq^{2}/r^{2} and F_{m} = kq^{2}u^{2}/r^{2}

Since Weber (1856) found that K/k = c^{2} we get

F_{e}/F_{m} = c^{2}/u^{2} . So for u = c, we see that F_{e }= F_{m}

That is, these simple applications of forces acting at a distance reveal that photons behave as moving dipoles. However under the influence of Maxwell’s fallacious fields physicists believe that Newton’s, Coulomb’s, and Ampere’s laws of action at a distance describe the failure of gravity and of early electromagnetism. In “Action at a distance-WIKIPEDIA” one reads: “ The exploration and resolution of this problematic phenomenon led to significant developments in physics, from the concept of a field, to descriptions of quantum entanglement and the mediator particles of the standard model **”.**

In fact, the concept of “Quantum Entanglement” was introduced, since experiments showed that a part of the transfer happens instantaneously, like the action at a distance. In 1935 Einstein was dissatisfied with this concept, because it seemed to violate his wrong ideas on the transmission of information implicit in his invalid relativity. So Einstein later wrote: “*Entanglement is a* *spooky* action at a distance* ”. *Note that in our

*HISTORY OF RELATIVITY ” we noticed that the criticism of relativity based not on laws but on various hypotheses misleads the readers and does much to retard the progress of physics.*

**“****UNIFIED FORCES INVALIDATE FIELDS, RELATIVITY, AND ALL THEORIES BASED ON WRONG STRONG AND WEAK FORCES**

Following Newton’s great work we applied the natural laws when a photon of variable mass with opposite charges interacts with an electron of charge

E_{y}(-e)dy/ B_{z}(-e)dy = dw/ F_{m}dt = dw/dp

Since E_{y}/B_{z} = c and dp = dmc we get

dw/dm = c^{2} or hν/m = c^{2}

Here we clear that Newton’s d(mu) = dmc, because c is constant. This simple formula modifies Einstein’s theory of photon (1905) because the absorbed photon by an electron contributes not only to the increase of energy but also to the increase of mass according to our discovery of our Photon – Matter Interaction :

hν/m = ΔW/ΔM = c^{2}

It is of interest to note that Newton's action at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity leads to the Quantum Entanglement and to the length contraction and time dilation during the absorption of the photon mass under the quantum dynamics. In Ancient Olympia we showed that our dipole photons work with electric and magnetic forces which occur under an instantaneous simultaneity of Newton's action at a distance. But when a photon interacts with an electron according to the electromagnetic laws the magnetic force occurs after the electric force which produces the velocity of the electron dy/dt .That is, simultaneity occurs when dy/dt = 0. Thus this situation is solved under a lenght contraction (dy) and a time dilation (dy).

According to Newton’s second law when a particle of mass M absorbs the photon mass m and increases its mass, also the increase of energy dW is given by

dW = (dp/dt) ds = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = (dMu + duM)u

because M and u are variable quantities due to the absorption of both energy and mass of photon. It means that the mass of the particle increases under the absorption of the photon mass by applying Newton’s law, while Einstein believed (incorrectly) that Newton’s law is a limited case of his special and general relativity**. **Thus physicist believe that natural laws are only approximations of Einstein’s special and general relativity. In “Physical law- WIKIPEDIA* ” *one reads

*Newtonian mechanics is the low speed of special relativity… and.. the Newtonian gravitation law is a low-mass approximation of general relativity”.*

**: “**The first experiment which showed the increase of mass was that of Kaufmann (1902). Surprisingly he found that an electron has a variable mass M at a velocity u with respect to its constant mass M_{o} given by

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2 }/(c^{2} – u^{2}) or M/M_{o} = c/(c^{2}- u^{2})^{0.5} = γ

Indeed the differentiation of this relation gives

dMc^{2} = (dMu +duM)u = dW

which leads to our discovery of the Photon-Matter Transformation. Here we see that the constant mass M_{o }before the photon absorption became a variable mass M due to the photon absorption.

Kaufmann soon tried to interpret his results by using the so-called electromagnetic mass recognized by Thomson (1881) and other physicists. Especially Kaufmann assumed that there is no “real mechanical mass” but only the “apparent electromagnetic mass” which increases with a velocity. Of course such a useful interpretation could be able for revealing the photon mass which leads to the Photon-Matter Transformation under the quantum dynamics. It is indeed unfortunate that Einstein did not follow the useful ideas of the electromagnetic mass but the wrong idea of the Lorentz ether. So he developed a wrong relativistic mass in motion relative to a moving observer**, **which violates the conservation laws of mass and energy**.**

In fact, all objects on the earth or on a train moving with a constant velocity (reference frame of the Galilean relativity principle) under the gravity (but in the absence of any absorption of photons) have always not a relativistic mass but a constant mass M_{o}. That is, in the Newtonian mechanics the conservation law of energy under the correct Galilean relativity is given by

M_{o}gH = M_{o} u^{2}/2

Of course it is always correct, when the system is conservative, because all natural laws are the same in all inertial frames. Whereas Einstein’s a stationary observer on the earth will measure incorrectly an increase of mass on the moving body according to the fallacious Lorentz transformation.** **

Also for a photon when the velocity c is perpendicular to the force the photon accelerates with a constant mass m_{o} and the energy dw is given by

F_{g}ds = dw = (dp/dt)ds = (m_{o}du/dt)ds = m_{o}udu.

That is, in this case the photon mass m_{o }behaves like the constant mass M_{o} of a particle. Of course, this fact invalidates the second postulation of Einstein that the velocity of light is always constant and his concept of rest mass M_{o} . It also invalidates the Einstein massless photon of his general relativity. This is the bending of light which predicted by Newton. At the conclusion of his Opticks in 1704 Newton proposed the following query: * “Do* not bodies act upon Light at a distance, and by their action bend its Rays, and is not this action strongest at the least distance?”

*Note that*such a prediction of the photon mass was confirmed not only by Soldner (1801) but also by Eddington (1919). Unfortunately under the influence of the fallacious Maxwell’s fields Einstein believed that the photon is a massless particle. So he could not accept a gravitational mass able to interact with the mass of stars.

**EXPERIMENTS OF MASS DEFECT REVEAL MAXWELL'S AND EINSTEIN’S SIGNIFICANT ERRORS**

For the conservation law of mass developed by Anaximnder, in 1879 Lavoisier found that an equal quantity of matter exists both before and after the expariment. But since there was still room for doubt in 1872 the German chemist Lothar Meyer suggested that the rearrangement of atoms during chemical reactions might be accompanied by the absorption or emission of particles of "ether". However Maxwell's theory and Einstein's massles photons did much to retard the progress of this idea, though the experiments revealed the mass defect.

In the generation of hydrogen atom during the transformation of the potential energy into the kinetic one of 27.2 eV the mass M_{o} of the electron remains constant but under the Bohr quantum jump it drops to a velocity around the proton with a kinetic energy of 13.6 eV. Note that during the quantum jump we observe a difference in energies as

ΔΕ = 27.2 - 13.6 = 13.6 eV

which turns into the energy hν =13.6 eV. Also we observe a mass defect ΔΜ which turns into the mass m of photon according to Matter–Photon Transformation

ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c^{2 }

That is, in atomic physics when energy is removed from a system, mass is always removed along with energy. Here the energy ΔΕ is due to the fundamental charge-charge interaction which turns into the energy hν while the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the mass m of photon. In other words the electron decreases its mass, though it moves with a velocity around proton in a laboratory with a stationary observer in it. So, all orbiting electrons in atoms invalidate dramatically the special relativity, according to which the mass of an electronmoving with respect to the nucleus increases.

Unfortunately Einstein using his incomplete equation ΔE = ΔΜc^{2}believed that the kinetic energy ΔE with respect to an observer adds an inertia in an amount ΔE/c^{2}. In other words he assumed that energy has mass. So he introduced false ideas of rest energy M_{o}c^{2 }and relativistic energy Mc^{2} given incorrectly by

ΔE = ΔΜc^{2} = (M – M_{o})c^{2} = Mc^{2} - M_{o}c^{2}

This equation of course includes the biggest errors in the history of physics which did much to retard the progress of physics, because Einstein underestimating the energies due to forces of natural laws suggested that even a mass of a motionless particle has energy called rest energy. Consequently the concepts of rest energy or relativistic energy are false ideas** **because** **the energy is due not to masses but to Coulomb’s charge-charge interaction**. **Therefore in the case of the hydrogen atom for the mass defect one writes incorrectly

ΔΜc^{2} =( M_{o }– M)c^{2} = hν or M_{o}c^{2} – Mc^{2 }= hν =13.6 eV

That is, Einstein believed that the energy of photon is due to the change in the rest energy of the system called Mass-Energy Equivalence, which is a false idea**. **

In fact, the energy of photons is due not to the mass defect but to the energy of the Coulomb law because it gets a real mass after the mass defect. In the same way for the so-called annihilation of electron and positron Einstein’s incomplete equation is written as

2M_{o} c^{2} = 2hν

which means that the mass of the two particles is converted into the energy hν. Such a false idea of course violates the two conservation laws of mass and energy developed by Anaximander and Heraclitus.** **Unfortunately in “Annihilation** –**WIKIPEDIA**”** (Electron-positron annihilation) we see these wrong ideas written as: * “..the* mass of the two particles are converted entirely into energy

*”.'*

In fact according to our discovery of the Matter- Photon Transformation we may write correctly

ΔΕ/2M_{o} = 2hν/2m = c^{2 }in reaction (e + e^{+} = γ +γ)

According to this complete relation as in the case of Hydrogen the energy ΔΕ = 1.022 MeV of the fundamental charge-charge interaction of the two particles is transformed into the energy 2hν = 1.022 MeV οf 2γ. Similarly the mass 2M_{o}of the particles is transformed into the mass 2m of the two photons in accordance with the two conservation laws of mass and energy. In other words all concepts of rest mass, rest energy, relativistic mass, and relativistic energy are fallacious ideas**.**

Note that when I presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic Nuclear Physics Society my paper with a large number of integral equations which reveal the nuclear structure and showed that the nuclear binding energy is due not to the mass defect but to the energy of the charge-charge interaction the paper met much opposition by many old physicists. Especially one old physicist (student of Einstein) did not ask any question but said that all my equations are wrong, because they are not based on "Einstein's Law".

Nevertheless these simple examples tell us that the mass cannot be converted into energy**, **because the energy hν of photons is due (not to the rest mass or to the false rest energy of particles) but to the energy of charge-charge interaction. That is, Einstein’s Mass-Energy Conservation is invalid**. **Note that the Dirac theory (1928) is based on the wrong relativistic energy E = Mc^{2} which was also derived by using simple mathematics as

E = ( M_{o}^{2}c^{4} + P^{2}c^{2 })^{0.5}

It is indeed unfortunate that in “Mass-energy equivalence**-**WIKIPEDIA**” **one can read confusing ideas about the rest mass or invariant mass, because it is believed that the energy of gamma ray is compared with the mass defect. Of course to avoid such confusions the above wrong article must be replaced by the “Photon-Matter Transformation**” **since in our paper (2002) we showed that in all cases of atomic and nuclear physics the energy of generated photons is just the same energy of the fundamental charge-charge interaction.

Under his incomplete equation Einstein also introduced another wrong concept of Mass-Energy conservation. Einstein himself pointed out: “Pre-relativistic physics contains two conservation laws of fundamental importance, namely the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of mass; these two appear there as completely independent of each other. Through relativity they melt together into one principle”.Such a false idea did much to retard the progress of nuclear binding because it is believed that the nuclear binding of deuterium is due to the change in the false rest mass energies between the isolated nucleons and the stable deuterium. Under these difficulties in 2002 we showed that the binding energy is due to the electromagnetic interaction of the charged 9 quarks in proton and 12 charged quarks in neutron. Moreover in “Dark energy-WIKIPEDIA” one can see the false idea of a dark energy due to Einstein’s wrong mass-energy conservation**. (**See my article “OUR UNIVERSE**”). **

Unfortunately, writing in Google “Limitations of Newton’s second law in special relativity” one can see that in the first four articles of WIKIPEDIA there are (incorrectly) such limitations, because Einstein believed that in all cases of motions relative to a randomly moving observer the mass of a particle increases according to the wrong Lorentz ideas. <p class="MsoNormal"></p>