By prof. Lefteris Kaliambos ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T. E. Institute of Larissa. Greece

( March 2014)

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paperIMPACT OF MAXWELL’S EQUATION OF DISPLACEMENT CURRENT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS AND COMPARISON OF THE MAXWELLIAN WAVES WITH OUR MODEL OF DIPOLIC PARTICLES presented at the International conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” (1993).

In that conference I presented my DISCOVERY OF DIPOLE PHOTONS according to which LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY .

Unfortunately under the strong influence of the invalid relativity and the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron (1932) theoretical physicists abandoned the well-established electromagnetic laws in favor of wrong nuclear theories and models which cannot lead to the nuclear structure. So despite the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions.(1926) based on the well-established laws of electromagnetism neither was able to reveal the simplest structure of deuteron. For example the great physicists Heisenberg (1932) and Yukawa (1935) under the invalid relativity and the assumptions of the uncharged neutron developed wrong theories of the so-called strong interaction which cannot lead to the nuclear structure of the simplest deuterium. Moreover after the discovery of the charged quarks (1964) Gell-Mann in 1973 under the false theories of relativity and of Yukawa did not use the well-established charge-charge interaction of the discovered charged quarks but tried to interpret the wrong strong interaction by developing his theory of quantum chromodynamics. Note that he postulated the strange “color forces” between hypothetical massless gluons which cannot exist in accordance with myDISCOVERY OF PHOTON MASS . Under this physics crisis I analyzes carefully the magnetic moments of nucleons and I discovered 9 charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron able to give the simplest nuclear structure of the deuterium by reviving the well-established laws of electromagnetism. (See my DISCOVERY OF QUARKS IN PROTON AND NEUTRON ) .

In Google Scholar one can see also my paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society ( NCSR “Demoktitos” 2002) . Unfortunately when I presented my DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE by reviving the abandoned laws of electromagnetism some elderly professors influenced by the invalid relativity abandoned the auditorium. Nevertheless after some years from the publication of the paper in Ind. J. Th. Phys. (2003) physicists today around the world are able to know why the large number of my integral equations reveal the nuclear structure.

**UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE QUALITATIVE APPROACH OF PAULI’S PRINCIPLE HEISENBERG EXPLANED INCORRECTLY THE PARALLEL SPIN OF DEUTERON STRUCTURE **

Unfortunately under the influence of the qualitative approaches of the so-called Pauli principle of two spinning electrons of opposite spin (1925), Heisenberg in 1932 for the explanation of the simple proton-neutron system proposed a fallacious isospin T since the parallel spin (S=1) of deuteron is forbidden by the “exclusion principle” characterizing the coupling of two electrons with antiparallel spin (S=0).

Historically after the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron (1932) which led to the abandonment of the well-established laws of electromagnetism theoretical physicists tried to understand the nuclear strong force; it was one of the principal problems in physics in the mid-twentieth century. About 1932, Heisenberg proposed that the proton and neutron might really be two states of the same particle, now called the nucleon. It is well-known that in atoms of two electrons despite the discovery of the electron spin which gives a peripheral velocity greater than the speed of light, Pauli under the influence of the invalid relativity for the explanation of paired electrons proposed his “exclusion principle” which cannot be applicable in the simplest nuclear structure of deuterium, because the binding energy of the p-n interaction occurs when the spin is parallel (S =1). In fact, the peripheral velocity (u>>c) of the opposite spin of two electrons gives stronger magnetic attraction than the electric repulsion. ( See myDISCOVERY OF TWO-ELECTRON ATOMS ).

Since the above qualitative approach of Pauli describes two different states of the same particle (electron) then it seemed convenient for these reasons to consider the neutron and the proton as two states of the same entity - the nucleon. It should be stressed, however, that the arguments described above are misleading in their simplicity of the proton-neutron system with parallel spin. In fact, after my discovery of extra quarks in nucleons according to the application of electromagnetic laws the negative charge of – Q_{n} = -8e/3 distributed along the periphery of neutron interacts electromagnetically with the positive charge of +Q = +8e/3 distributed along the periphery of the spinning proton for giving the parallel spin (S = 1) of the simple n-p system. However in the absence of the detailed structure of nucleons Heisenberg proposed the fallacious isospin T. One wrong application of the assumed generalized Pauli principle could explain the experiments of proton-proton (p-p) and neutron-neutron ( n-n ) systems. For example for T =1 one observes that the p-p and n-n systems have opposite spin ( S=0 ), while for T = 0 the p-n system operates with parallel spin (S=1). In fact, two protons of opposite spin cannot make a pair because the spin of nucleons gives a peripheral velocity smaller than the speed of light. Under this condition the electric repulsion F_{e} is greater than the magnetic attraction. Thus the net electromagnetic force F_{pp} is a repulsive force given by F_{pp} = F_{e} – F_{m} . Whereas in the simple p-n system the net electromagnetic force F_{pn} is an attractive force because the magnetic attraction of parallel spin contributes to the total attraction.

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**SIMPLE EXPLANATION OF DEUTERON STRUCTURE AND BINDING**

In my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” one can find an accurate explanation of deuteron structure and binding by using my difficult differential equations which reveal the deuteron structure and give exactly the binding energy E = -2.2246 MeV. To avoid such a difficulty I present here a simple method by using the electric and magnetic forces between the distributed charges of proton (p) and neutron (n). For example the detailed analysis of the magnetic moments and of the deep inelastic experiments gives point charges

–q = -5e/3 and +Q_{n }= +8e/3

limited at the centers of proton and neutron respectively

Whereas the analysis gives

+Q = +8e/3 distributed along the periphery of proton and –Q_{n} = -8e/3 distributed along the periphery of neutron.

Thus for a separation d between the two point charges at the centers of the two nucleons the application of the coulomb law gives an attractive electric force

F_{e}(-q, +Q_{n}) = -KqQ_{n}/d^{2}_{ }= - 40Ke^{2}/9d^{2}_{ }

Also the charges +Q and –Q_{n} distributed along the peripheries of proton and neutron yield an attractive electric force

– F_{e}( +Q, -Q_{n})

given by a difficult differential equation.

Since the spin is parallel we observe an attractive magnetic force

-Fm( (+Q, -Q_{n})

given by a difficult differential equation.

That is, in the simple p-n system one observes one strong attractive force between the point charges and two weak attractive forces between the peripheral charges.

However in this simple p-n system one observes a repulsive electric force

+F_{e}(-q, -Q_{n})

given by a difficult differential equation, because the negative point charge –q of the proton interacts with the negative peripheral charge –Q_{n} of the neutron. In the same way we observe a repulsive electric force

+ F_{e} ( +Q_{n}, + Q)

because the positive point charge +Qn of neutron interacts with the positive peripheral charge +Q of the proton. So the attractive electromagnetic force F_{pn} of the p-n system is given by

F_{pn} = -40Ke^{2}/9d^{2} – F_{e }(+Q, - Q_{n}) -F_{m} ( +Q, -Q_{n}) + F_{e} ( -q, -Q_{n} ) + F_{e} ( +Q_{n} + Q)

Since the first force is a strong attractive force and the next attractions with the repulsions give a small net force we can take into account the binding energy E in MeV of the first force of interacting point charges by writing

40Ke/9d < 2.2246 MeV

Thus substituting the constants one gets d < 2.877/10^{15} m.

**TODAY PHYSICISTS CONTINUE TO BELIEVE THAT THE DEUTERON STRUCTURE AND BINDING COULD BE EXPLAIED BY THE WRIONG NUCLEAR THEORIES**

Although this simple explanation of the deuteron structure and binding is based on the well-established laws able to tell us how the charges of two spinning nucleons interact electromagnetically with parallel spin ( S = 1 ) for giving the nuclear binding and force in the simplest nuclear structure of the deuterium, today physicists continue to believe that the nuclear structure of the deuterium could be explained by the false nuclear theories and models which could not lead to the simplest structure of deuteron.

For example in the “Deuterium –Wikipedia” and especially in chapter “ Isospin singlet state of the deuteron” one reads:

“Due to the similarity in mass and nuclear properties between the proton and neutron, they are sometimes considered as two symmetric types of the same object, a nucleon. While only the proton has an electric charge, this is often negligible due to the weakness of the electromagnetic interaction relative to the strong nuclear interaction. The symmetry relating the proton and neutron is known as isospin and denoted I (or sometimes T). Isospin is an SU(2) symmetry, like ordinary spin, so is completely analogous to it. The proton and neutron form an isospin doublet, with a "down" state (↓) being a neutron, and an "up" state (↑) being a proton.”

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**CONCLUSIONS **

It is indeed unfortunate that the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron led to the abandonment of electromagnetic laws in favor of wrong theories of nuclear force and nuclear structure. Thus, after my DISCOVERY OF QUARKS IN PROTON AND NEUTRON the application of the well-established electromagnetic laws on the charges of extra 9 charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron led to the correct structure of deuteron The deuteron is a stable p-n system composed of a proton and a neutron with parallel spin along the radial direction giving a binding energy of 2.2246 MeV. It's stability is remarkable since the free neutron is unstable, undergoing beta decay with a halflife of 10.3 minutes. Especially the deuteron binding energy of -2.2246 MeV implies that it is stable. The free neutron yields an energy of 1.29 MeV in beta decay, but the 2.2246 MeV binding energy of the deuteron prevents its decay. The stability of the deuteron is an important part of the story of the universe. In the Big Bang model it is presumed that in early stages there were equal numbers of neutrons and protons since the available energies were much higher than the 1.29 MeV required to convert a proton to a neutron under the absorption of energetic antineutrinos. When the temperature dropped to the point where neutrons could no longer be produced from protons, the decay of free neutrons began to diminish their population. Those which combined with protons to form deuterons were protected from further decay. This is fortunate for us because if all the neutrons had decayed, there would be no universe as we know it, and we wouldn't be here. (See my OUR EARLY UNIVERSE ).