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By Prof. Lefteris Kaliambos  (Λ. Καλιαμπός) T. E. Institute of Larissa, Greece

September 13 , 2015

Historically, FitzGerald (1889) and Lorentz (1892) influenced by Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory of wrong Maxwell’s fields moving through a hypothetical ether (1865)  introduced the first hypothesis of length contraction by assuming that the ether does exist, while in 1887 the two American physicists Michelson and Morley showed experimentally that the Maxwellian ether cannot exist.  But the postulated existence of ether suggested that just as the velocity of sound is modified by motion of the air as wind the measured velocity of light should be influenced by motion of the ether.  Especially Michelson used the well known interferometer with a length L along the direction of light speed c and another length Lo = L along the perpendicular direction. Let us assume that, at the time of the experiment, the earth moves with a velocity u relative to the hypothetical ether. Therefore the total time T required for the light to travel and return along the length L should be given by

T = L/(c-u) + L/(c-u) = 2Lc/(c2-u2)

Whereas the total time To required for the light to travel and return along the length Lo should be given by

To = 2Lo/(c2-u2)0.5

Thus T/To = c/ (c2 –u2)0.5

Since L = Lo and the experiment showed that T/To = 1 they proved that u = 0 .

In other words they rejected the Maxwellian ether in favor of Newton’s particles of light confirmed by Soldner in 1801.

Nevertheless, Lorentz in 1904 for the explanation of the Kaufmann experiment (1901) influenced by the excellent math of the invalid Maxwell’s equations tried to explain the null result of the Michelson experiment  by assuming that the earth does move relative to the ether. So the linear dimension of an object would contract along the line of relative motion. That is, the length L of the interferometer should be contracted with respect to the Lo during the motion through the hypothetical ether. Thus writing

2Lc/(c2-u2) = 2Lo/(c2-u2)0.5 he suggested that L = Lo(c2-u2)0.5/c

This is the hypothetical length contraction of Lorenz when an object moves with respect to the fallacious Maxwellian ether.

Albert Einstein (1905) using the same math of Lorentz complicated more the problem because in his invalid special relativity replaced the fallacious ether by a randomly moving observer . For example when an observer moves at the same velocity of a moving electron in a laboratory the moving observer should measure the length contractions of all stationary objects in the laboratory.

Under such complications Einstein later (1915) in his invalid general relativity reintroduced an ether and suggested also an invalid curvature of space.

To avoid such inconsistencis and wrong theories of Maxwell and of Einstein I presented at the international conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” (1993) my paper “Impact of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles”. In photo I speak for Einstein's inconsistencies about the ether with the Italian physicists M. Barone and F. Selleri who organized the conference of 1993 in Olympia. In that paper I showed that laws and experiments invalidate fields and relativity under my discovery of dipole nature of photon  in which the mass with opposite charges led to the discovery of  the Photon-Matter Interaction

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2

According to this discovery the absorption of photons in the correct explanation of photoelectric effect under a length contraction and a time dilation contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ . For example when the opposite charges of such a photon interact with an electron we get  dw/dm = c2 by using the interaction in terms of the vectors Ey and Bz which operate at the same time and lead to the photon-matter interaction as:

Ey (-e) dy = dw

and  Bz(-e)dy = Fm dt = dp = cdm.

Since Ey/Bz = c we get dw/dm = c2 = hν/m

Note that such a result under the application of Newton’s laws led to my discovery of the length contraction and time dilation.  In this case of quantum physics which differs from the Newtonian mechanics we see that under a velocity  dy/dy the magnetic force Fm should  occur after the electric force Fe =  Ey(-e) which violates Newton’s third law. Nevertheless this Photon -Matter Interaction does occur when the velocity dy/dt approaches to zero under a length contraction and a time dilation. In the Newtonian mechanics the idea of the same pair of events seeming simultaneous of the third law to different observers in relative motion is taking for granted. But Einstein in his invalid relativity suggested that it is an unwarranted idea. Particularly according to Einstein when a lightning strikes the two ends of a moving train at the same instant the observer on the earth (outside the moving train) sees the events of the two ends of the train at the same time, while an observer on the moving train  would not see the two events at the same time. Thus he concluded incorrectly that simultaneity of Newton’s third law is not invariant but depends on the reference frame. Under such fallacious ideas I examined carefully the Kaufmann experiment and I discovered that according to the Photon-Matter Interaction the increase of the electron mass under a length contraction and a time dilation is due to the absorption of both energy and mass.

Indeed, in the Kaufamnn experiment (1901) under the same length contraction and a time dilation  the absorption of an energy by an electron contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the variation of the electron mass starting from the inertial mass Mo (before the absorption). Here we do not use the wrong rest mass because it led to complications. Instead we use Newton’s inertial mass Mo (before the absorption) which is always constant in a mechanical conservative system, where the sum of the  kinetic and potential energy is constant, as in gravity. Since the relativistic mass ledas also to complications, after the absorption we use a variable mass M in accordance with the following equation

M2/Mo2 = c2/(c2-u2)

Indeed, the differentiation of this equation under the application of Newton’s second law leads to my discovery of the Photon-Matter interaction as

M2c2 = M2u2

Or  2MdMc2 = 2MdM u2 + 2uduM2

Or  dMc2 = (dMu + udM)u = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = (dp/dt)ds  =  dW

This result deduced from the application of Newton’s second law invalidates dramatically the theory of special relativity. ( See my “Newton invalidates Einstein”).

Surprisingly we see also that the gravitational force Facting at a distance on the mass m of photons  is able to give the same result dw/dm = c2 which means that, under the quantum physics, gravity and electromagnetism are unified correctly. So they led to my discovery of unified forces acting at a distance of the well-established laws. Whereas, Einstein in his later years under his false massless quanta of fields sought to unify the hypothetical electromagnetic and gravitational fields without success.

This is the well-known gravitational blue shift when a photon moves toward a massive star. That is, because of the variable photon mass, which differs fundamentally from the constant inertial mass of particles, one observes a blue shift energy hδν. Of course it is similar to the kinetic energy of a simple particle of constant inertial mass accelerated in a gravitational field. Note that Einstein in his invalid general relativity used incorrectly his relativistic accelerations of particles which lead to complications, because he believed that in nature there is a universal principle of relativity giving always his relativistic accelerations. So, under such wrong axioms he thought that the fundamental Newtonian accelerations in gravity are a limited case of his conclusions.  In fact, we can see just the opposite situation, because  applications  of Newton’s laws give the general correct results of both the kinetic energy of particles and the gravitational frequency shift of a photon when the velocity c is parallel to the gravitational force Fg:

Fgds = dw = ( dp/dt) ds = [d(mu)/dt]ds = [m(du/dt) +u(dm/dt)]ds

Here we observe also a length contraction and a time dilation because the gravitational force cannot contribute to the acceleration of photon along the constant velocity c. Thus any acceleration will approach to zero under a length contraction and a time dilation. However when the velocity c is perpendicular to c the gravitational force, according to Galileo’s discoveries, contributes to the acceleration of the photon along the direction which is perpendicular to c. Of course this case predicted by Newton is the well known bending of light confirmed by Soldner in 1801.  In Newton's own formulation of the second law, he states that the force acting on a body is equal to the change of its momentum F = d(mu)/dt no matter what is changing. But it was far more convenient to use the rate of change of motion. It is a very simple version F = m(du/dt) formalized by the Swiss mathematician Euler(1750) for the conservative systems where the sum of potential and kinetic energy is constant under the constant inertial mass Mo. Note that at the time of Euler physicists did not know that Newton's particles of light have a variable mass when the velocity c is parallel to the gravitational force able to give an energy of blue shift.

Nevetheless today many physicists influenced by Einstein's relativity believe that the length contraction of Einstein changed our notions of simultaneity in cntrast to the third law of Newton. Although the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions solved all the phenomena of atomic physics, todey also physicists believed to the wrong concept of four dimensional spacetime. For example in the "Length contraction-WIKIPEDIA" one reads the following wrong ideas:

"Eventually, Albert Einstein (1905) was the first to completely remove the ad hoc character from the contraction hypothesis, by demonstrating that this contraction did not require motion through a supposed aether, but could be explained using special relativity, which changed our notions of space, time, and simultaneity. Einstein's view was further elaborated by Hermann Minkowski, who demonstrated the geometrical interpretation of all relativistic effects by introducing his concept of four-dimensional spacetime."