By Prof. Lefteris Kaliambos (Λ. Καλιαμπός) T. E. Institute of Larissa, Greece

September 13 , 2015

Historically, FitzGerald (1889) and Lorentz
(1892) influenced by Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory of wrong Maxwell’s fields
moving through a hypothetical ether (1865)
introduced the first hypothesis of length contraction by assuming that
the ether does exist, while in 1887 the two American physicists Michelson and
Morley showed experimentally that the Maxwellian ether cannot exist. But the postulated existence of ether suggested
that just as the velocity of sound is modified by motion of the air as wind the
measured velocity of light should be influenced by motion of the ether. Especially Michelson used the well known
interferometer with a length L along the direction of light speed c and another
length L_{o} = L along the perpendicular direction. Let us assume that,
at the time of the experiment, the earth moves with a velocity u relative to
the hypothetical ether. Therefore the total time T required for the light to
travel and return along the length L should be given by

T = L/(c-u) + L/(c-u) =
2Lc/(c^{2}-u^{2})

Whereas the total time T_{o}
required for the light to travel and return along the length L_{o}
should be given by

T_{o} = 2L_{o}/(c^{2}-u^{2})^{0.5
}

Thus T/T_{o} = c/
(c^{2} –u^{2})^{0.5}

Since L = L_{o} and
the experiment showed that T/T_{o }= 1 they proved that u = 0 .

In other words they rejected the Maxwellian ether in favor of Newton’s particles of light confirmed by Soldner in 1801.

Nevertheless, Lorentz in
1904 for the explanation of the Kaufmann experiment (1901) influenced by the
excellent math of the invalid Maxwell’s equations tried to explain the null
result of the Michelson experiment by
assuming that the earth does move relative to the ether. So the linear
dimension of an object would contract along the line of relative motion. That
is, the length L of the interferometer should be contracted with respect to the
L_{o} during the motion through the hypothetical ether. Thus writing

2Lc/(c^{2}-u^{2})
= 2L_{o}/(c^{2}-u^{2})^{0.5} he suggested that
L = L_{o}(c^{2}-u^{2})^{0.5}/c

This is the hypothetical length contraction of Lorenz when an object moves with respect to the fallacious Maxwellian ether.

Albert Einstein (1905) using the same math of Lorentz complicated more the problem because in his invalid special relativity replaced the fallacious ether by a randomly moving observer . For example when an observer moves at the same velocity of a moving electron in a laboratory the moving observer should measure the length contractions of all stationary objects in the laboratory.

Under such complications Einstein later (1915) in his invalid general relativity reintroduced an ether and suggested also an invalid curvature of space.

To avoid such inconsistencis and wrong theories of Maxwell and of Einstein I presented at the international conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” (1993) my paper “Impact of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles”. In photo I speak for Einstein's inconsistencies about the ether with the Italian physicists M. Barone and F. Selleri who organized the conference of 1993 in Olympia. In that paper I showed that laws and experiments invalidate fields and relativity under my discovery of dipole nature of photon in which the mass with opposite charges led to the discovery of the Photon-Matter Interaction

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

According to this discovery
the absorption of photons in the correct explanation of photoelectric effect under a length contraction and a time dilation contributes not only to
the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ . For example when the
opposite charges of such a photon interact with an electron we get dw/dm =
c^{2} by using the interaction in terms of the vectors E_{y}
and B_{z} which operate at the same time and lead to the photon-matter
interaction as:

E_{y} (-e) dy
= dw

and B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m} dt =
dp = cdm.

Since E_{y}/B_{z} =
c we get dw/dm = c^{2} = hν/m

Note that such a result
under the application of Newton’s laws led to my discovery of the length
contraction and time dilation. In this
case of quantum physics which differs from the Newtonian mechanics we see that
under a velocity dy/dy the magnetic
force F_{m} should occur after
the electric force F_{e} = E_{y}(-e)
which violates Newton’s third law. Nevertheless this Photon -Matter Interaction
does occur when the velocity dy/dt approaches to zero under a length
contraction and a time dilation. In the Newtonian mechanics the idea of the
same pair of events seeming simultaneous of the third law to different
observers in relative motion is taking for granted. But Einstein in his invalid
relativity suggested that it is an unwarranted idea. Particularly according to
Einstein when a lightning strikes the two ends of a moving train at the same
instant the observer on the earth (outside the moving train) sees the events of the two ends of
the train at the same time, while an observer on the moving train would not see the two events at the same
time. Thus he concluded incorrectly that simultaneity of Newton’s third law is
not invariant but depends on the reference frame. Under such fallacious ideas I
examined carefully the Kaufmann experiment and I discovered that according to
the Photon-Matter Interaction the increase of the electron mass under a length contraction and a time dilation is due to the
absorption of both energy and mass.

Indeed, in the Kaufamnn
experiment (1901) under the same length contraction and a time dilation
the absorption of an energy by an electron contributes not only to the
increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the variation of the electron mass starting from the
inertial mass M_{o} (before the absorption). Here we do not use
the wrong rest mass because it led to
complications. Instead we use Newton’s inertial mass M_{o} (before the
absorption) which is always constant in a mechanical conservative system, where
the sum of the kinetic and potential
energy is constant, as in gravity. Since the relativistic mass ledas also to complications, after the absorption we use a
variable mass M in accordance with the following equation

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} =
c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

Indeed, the differentiation of this equation under the application of Newton’s second law leads to my discovery of the Photon-Matter interaction as

M^{2}c^{2} =
M^{2}u^{2}

Or 2MdMc^{2} =
2MdM u^{2} + 2uduM^{2}

Or dMc^{2} =
(dMu + udM)u = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = (dp/dt)ds = dW

This result deduced from the application of Newton’s second law invalidates dramatically the theory of special relativity. ( See my “Newton invalidates Einstein”).

Surprisingly we see also that
the gravitational force F_{g }acting at a distance on the mass m
of photons is able to give the same
result dw/dm = c^{2} which means that, under the quantum
physics, gravity and electromagnetism are unified correctly. So they led to
my discovery of unified forces acting at a
distance of the well-established laws. Whereas, Einstein in his later years under his false massless quanta
of fields sought to unify the hypothetical electromagnetic and gravitational
fields without success.

This is the well-known
gravitational blue shift when a photon moves toward a massive star. That is,
because of the **variable photon mass**, which differs fundamentally
from the constant inertial mass of particles, one observes a blue shift energy
hδν. Of course it is similar to the kinetic energy of a simple particle of
constant inertial mass accelerated in a gravitational field. Note that Einstein
in his invalid general relativity used incorrectly his relativistic
accelerations of particles which lead to complications, because he
believed that in nature there is a universal principle of relativity
giving always his relativistic accelerations. So, under such wrong axioms he
thought that the fundamental Newtonian accelerations in gravity are a limited
case of his conclusions. In fact, we can see just the opposite
situation, because applications of Newton’s laws give the
general correct results of both the kinetic energy of particles and the
gravitational frequency shift of a photon when the velocity c is parallel to
the gravitational force Fg:

F_{g}ds = dw =
( dp/dt) ds = [d(mu)/dt]ds = [m(du/dt) +u(dm/dt)]ds

Here we observe also a
length contraction and a time dilation because the gravitational force cannot
contribute to the acceleration of photon along the constant velocity c. Thus any
acceleration will approach to zero under a length contraction and a time
dilation. However when the velocity c is perpendicular to c the gravitational
force, according to Galileo’s discoveries, contributes to the acceleration
of the photon along the direction which is perpendicular to c. Of course this
case predicted by Newton is the well known bending of light confirmed by
Soldner in 1801. In Newton's own
formulation of the second law, he states that the force acting on a body is
equal to the change of its momentum F = d(mu)/dt no matter what is changing.
But it was far more convenient to use the rate of change of motion. It is a
very simple version F = m(du/dt) formalized by the Swiss mathematician
Euler(1750) for the conservative systems where the sum of potential and kinetic
energy is constant under the constant inertial mass M_{o}. Note that at
the time of Euler physicists did not know that Newton's particles of light have
a variable mass when the velocity c is parallel to the gravitational force able
to give an energy of blue shift.

Nevetheless today many physicists influenced by Einstein's relativity believe that the length contraction of Einstein changed our notions of simultaneity in cntrast to the third law of Newton. Although the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions solved all the phenomena of atomic physics, todey also physicists believed to the wrong concept of four dimensional spacetime. For example in the "Length contraction-WIKIPEDIA" one reads the following wrong ideas:

"Eventually, Albert Einstein (1905) was the first to completely remove the ad hoc character from the contraction hypothesis, by demonstrating that this contraction did not require motion through a supposed aether, but could be explained using special relativity, which changed our notions of space, time, and simultaneity. Einstein's view was further elaborated by Hermann Minkowski, who demonstrated the geometrical interpretation of all relativistic effects by introducing his concept of four-dimensional spacetime."