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By  prof. L. Kaliambos (Natural Philosopher In New Energy)

 This scientific paper was announced to many universities around the world (March 2013).

 Writing in Google scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper “Impact of Maxwell’s …dipolic particles” presented at the international conference "Frontiers of fundamental physics" (Olympia,1993) which invalidates Maxwell’s fields and Einstein's ideas. The conference was organized by the natural philosophers M.Barone and F. Selleri who found Einstein's inconsistencies. Einstein for his development of massless quanta of energy was based on wrong Maxwell's fields which led to his invalid relativity violating dramatically the two conservation laws of energy and mass.

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N.C.S.R. "Demokritos" (2002)

Moreover after my published paperNuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” (2003) today it is well known that all experiments of atomic and nuclear physics reject Einstein. (EXPERIMENTS REJECT RELATIVITY).That paper was also presented at a nuclear conference held in (N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", 2002). In this photo I emphasize why the new electromagnetic energy of the nuclear structure due to the electromagnetic interaction of the considerable charge distributions in nucleons rejects Einstein's relativity, and why in the helium atom two electrons of opposite spin at very short distances appear with stronger magnetic attraction than the electric repulsion.

Despite the enormous success of the Bohr model and the quantum mechanics in the one-electron atoms  based on  the proton-electron interaction of electromagnetic laws, neither was able to provide a satisfactory explanation of the many-electron atoms (electron-electron attraction) even in the simplest case of the Helium atom, because Heisenberg and Dirac in 1926 under the influence of the invalid Einstein’s relativity  abandoned the electromagnetic laws of the spinning electrons and introduced qualitative approaches of the so-called “Exchange interaction”.  In 1925 the discovery of the electron spin by Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit showed that the peripheral velocity of the electron spin is greater than the speed of light ( u >> c ), which means that two electrons of opposite spin exert stronger magnetic attraction than the electric repulsion.

 However it is indeed unfortunate that the discovery of the electron spin met much opposition by physicists, including Pauli, who suggested his qualitative “Exclusion principle”, which cannot be applied in the simplest nuclear structure (Deuteron). So in “Helium atom-WIKIPEDIA” one reads “Unlike for hydrogen a closed -form solution to the Schrodinger equation for the Helium atom has not been found'”.  Under this crisis of atomic physics and the following crisis in nuclear physics, due to the discovery of  the assumed uncharged neutron (1932), I prepared  my paper of 2003. In the same paper I showed also that the enormous peripheral velocity u  of the electron spin (u >> c) cannot be affected by the absorptions of photons. Note that in my discovery of the law of PHOTON -MATTER INTERACTION I showed that the absorption of photons mass and energy by electrons is responsible for the increase of the electron mass in accelerators leading to the velocity which cannot be equal to the speed of light.

Whereas the enormous peripheral velocity in two electrons of opposite spin at short distances under the applications of the Coulomb and the Ampere law law gives a magnetic attraction stronger than the electric repulsion able to explain the energies of many-electron atoms and the covalent bonds in molecules. Under this condition in 2008 I published my paper “ Spin-spin interactions..structures" showing that two elecrons of opposite spin exert stronger magnetic attraction than the electric repulsion able to explain the electron configurations in atoms of many electrons and in molecular bonds.

SPIN-SPIN INTERACTIONS OF ELECTRONS OF OPPOSITE SPIN

Fundamental interactions of spinning electrons at an interelectron separation less than 578.8 fm yield attractive electromagnetic forces with S=0 creating vibrations under a motional emf. They explain the indistinguishability of electrons and give a vibration energy able for calculating the ground-state energies of many-electron atoms without using any perturbative  approximation. Such forces create two-electron orbitals able to account for the exclusion principle and the mechanism of covalent bonds. In the outer subshells of atoms the penetrating orbitals interact also as pair-pair systems and deform drastically the probability densities of the quantum mechanical electron clouds. Such a dynamics of deformation removes the degeneracy and leads to the deviation from the Bohr shell scheme. However in the interior of atoms the large nuclear charge leads to a spherically symmetric potential with non interacting pairs for creating shells of degenerate states giving an accurate explanation of the X-ray lines. On the other hand considerable charge distributions in nucleons as multiples of 2e/3 and -e/3 of spinning quarks determined by the magnetic moments, interact for creating the nuclear structure with p-n bonds. Such spn-spin interactions show that the concept of the untisymmetric wave function for fermions is inapplicable not only in the simple p-n systems but also in the LS coupling in which the electrons interact from different quantum states giving either S=0 or S=l.

THE GROUND STATE ENERGY OF HELIUM ATOM

In  the absence of a detailed knowledge of the electron-electron electromagnetic attraction one observes a great confusion about the Helium atom. For example in  “Helium - WIKIPEDIA” (electron configuration) one sees that the two electrons of opposite spin occupy the same orbital but they are placed far apart, though the experiments showed that there is a strong tendency to pair off  electrons responsible for the covalent bonds in molecules. An obvious confusion is observed  in Google (images of the Helium atom), because in many cases the two electrons are placed far apart in the same orbital, while in other cases one sees the electrons placed in two different sub-orbitals so as to keep them as far apart as possible.

Looking also the images of the negative hydrogen ion (hydrogen with two electros) on can observe the same confusion.  So  to overcome this confusion I present here the electromagnetic attraction Fem  =  Fe  - Fm  at an interelectron separation R on the spinning electrons with mass M and charge e of opposite spin after the application of the Coulomb  and the Ampere law.  In the FORCE AND STRUCTURE OF NUCLEUS (User Kaliambos ) one can see how I derived the equation (52):

 Fem  =  Fe - Fm =  K e2 / R2   -  ( K e2 / R4 )( 9 h2/16 πM 2 c2)

 So  for  F =  Fm   one gets   Ro = 3h / 4π Μ c  =  0.5788 / 10 12   m

 That is for R < Ro the electrons exert an atractive electromagnetic force . As a consiquence this situation provides the physical basis for understanding the pairing of two electrons described qualitatively by the exclusion principle. Note that in the presence of of an external magnetic force the electrons operate with S = 1  giving Fem   =  Fe + Fm which cannot allow such a pairing of electrons. Whereas for two paired electrons of opposite spin at R < Ro   a motional emf  produces vibrations of the two electrons. As a result the electrons under such vibrations seem to be indistinguishable particles, restricted between two potential barriers. So they behave like one particle forming two-electro orbitals. After the ionizations a detailed analysis of many one-electron atoms showed that the vibration energy  Ev  in eV is given by

 Ev = 16.95Z  - 4.1       where Z is the number of protons.

Thus in the absence of  such a vibration energy the ground state energy of an atom with Z protons and two electrons in the ground state (1s2)  according to the Bohr model should be given by

 E = 2(-13.6)Z because the two electrons behave like one particle.

 As a result the total energy in eV of the ground state will be

 E = -27.2 Z 2  +  (16.95Z  - 4.1)

 For example the energy of the ground state energy of the negative hydrogen ion (atom  with Z =1 having two electrons) is

 E = -27.2 +16.95 - 4.1 = - 14.35 eV which is the experimental value.

 That is, for the electron configuration of the negative hydrogen ion (1s2) we may use the same image of the electron configuration 1sof the “Hydrogen-Wikipedia”  because in the same position is a pair of two electrons. Since the two electrons behave like one particle we apply the same Schrodinger equations as those of the one-electron atoms for the ground state energy.

In other words, in the quantum mechanics, we may use the same image of the “Hydrogen atom-WIKIPEDIA” which shows the first orbital   s  with l = 0. (principal quantum number n = 1,  l = 0), because the pair of two electrons in the negative hydrogen ion replaces the one electron of the ordinary hydrogen.

In the same way the ground state energy of the Helium atom with Z = 2 having two electrons is

 E = (-27.2)4 + (16.95) 2  - 4.1 = -79 eV which is the experimental value.

Since the one electron of the positive helium ion behaves like the one electron of the ordinary hydrogen, then in the same way the two electrons of the helium atom behave like the two electrons of the negative hydrogen ion leading to the quantum mechanics of the two-electron orbitals.

 

CONCLUSIONS

Under the influence of the invalid Einstein’s relativity theoretical physicists abandoned the electromagnetic  laws of the Bohr model and of  the Schrodinger equations. So in vain they tried to solve the problems of two-electron orbitals under fallacious theories based on approximations of perturbation theories. For example in the “Helium atom-WIKIPEDIA” one sees various approximations, which lead to complications such as the Hartree-Fock method, the Thomas-Fermi method, and the Variational method. Under this crisis of atomic physics I took into account the peripheral velocity u>>c of the discovery of the electron spin to apply carefully the laws of Coulomb and Ampere on the spinning electrons. In my paper of 2008 one sees that the applictions of electromagnetic laws under the rules of the quantum mechanics lead to the enormous success for describing atomic and molecular structures.  Note that when I presented the first equations at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic Nuclear Physics Society, my new ideas met much opposition, though the equations were able for explaining the two-electron coupling of the quantum mechanics.  

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