By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T.E. Institute of Larissa Greece

This paper was announced to many universities around the world ( January 2014)

** **

**THEORIES CANNOT REPLACE THE WELL-ESTABLISHED LAW OF GRAVITY **

Although nature works in only one way, as early as 1907 Einstein tried to find a way for the modification of the well-established law of gravity by showing dissatisfaction with his wrong special relativity in which he used not the law of the absorption of photons but hypothetical relative velocities with respect to a randomly moving observer. On the other hand despite the rejection of the Maxwellian ether by the Michelson –Morley experiment (1887) in favor of Newton's particles of light, Einstein influenced by Maxwell’s fields moving through the fallacious ether(1865) tried to modify the well-established laws of Newton under his massless quantum of fields. Therefore he reintroduced an “ether structure” or introduced a “curvature of space-time” with fallacious gravitational fields or gravitational waves. Under this crisis of fields and relativity in my paper “Impact of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles” (Olympia 1993) I showed that LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY . It is of interest to note that my dipolic particles or dipolic photons led to my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION which invalidates Einstein’s massless quantum of fields responsible for the development of various fallacious hypotheses in special and general relativity.

Historically Newton’s law of gravity deduced from detailed observations led to the abandonment of all theories of geocentric systems based on various wrong assumptions. Nevertheless in Newton’s time there remained a feature which greatly bothered his contemporaries. How could one account for gravity itself? What is that causes the attraction of one body for another? Is there not some intervening medium ( such as the Cartesian ether ) which somehow transmits the gravitational force? Rather than accept Newton’s fundamental action at a distance, (confirmed by the Michelson experiment and the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement ) most scientists influenced by the Cartesian ether preferred to think of all space as filled with some kind of omnipresent fluid.

It is fortunate that with the famous words “ **I FEIGN NO HYPOTHESES**” Newton exempts himself from the obligation to account for the observed consequences of his well-established law of gravity with additional hypotheses. Furthermore under his particles of light having mass (1704) Newton predicted the bending of light near the sun confirmed by Soldner in 1801.

Nevertheless under the influence of his wrong special relativity and of philosophical speculations Einstein tried to find another way for the solution of hypothetical problems about his wrong relativity by saying: Why was only uniform motion relative with respect to a hypothetical moving observer ? Why was only acceleration absolute? At the same time he wanted to modify Newton’s well-established universal law of gravity, because he believed that all laws of nature are the result of his hypothetical relative motions with respect to a randomly moving observer. For example according to his strange idea of relative motions when an observer moves with a moving electron he can measure an increase of mass for all stationary objects in the laboratory. In fact, Einstein in his wrong relativity violated not only the two conservation laws of energy and mass but also the principle of relativity by using Maxwell’s electric field in the Faraday induction law. (See my WRONG AND CORRECT EINSTEIN and RELATIVITY BY L. KALIAMBOS ).

So at first he assumed that there is a problem of gravitation which must be linked with the problem of acceleration. On this basis he starts with the introduction of his “Equivalence Principle” by repeating Newton’s discovery of the constant inertial mass m_{o} . It is well-known that Newton found the equality between the constant inertial mass m_{o} of an object and the gravitational mass m of the same object. According to his law of gravity on the surface of the earth of radius R the gravitational force F_{g} between an object of constant inertial mass m_{o} or gravitational mass m and the mass M of the earth is written as

F_{g} = m_{o}g = GmM/R^{2}

Since Galileo showed experimentally that the acceleration g in a place on the surface is the same for all objects, then Newton concluded that m_{o }= m. On this bases I showed that under the universal law of gravity when a photon of a constant inertial mass m_{o} = hν/c^{2} moves in perpendicular direction to gravity the gravitational force F_{g} according to Galileo’s projectiles will cause an acceleration ( du/dt ) along the direction of gravity.

In general for all forces Newton’s formula of his second law is correct as

F = d(mu)/dt

arising naturally from observations on collisions.

But since here gravity F_{g }appears with continuously acting forces we combine the first and the second law of Newton and apply the simple formula of Euler (1750):

F_{g} = m_{o}(du/dt)

So we will observe a curved trajectory as a result of the combined two separate motions like the perpendicular constant velocity c to gravity and the acceleration (du/dt) directed along the gravity in accordance with Newton’s first and second law. This situation was predicted by Newton for his particles of light when they pass near the sun (confirmed by Soldner in 1801).

However, Einstein under his fallacious massless quantum of fields believed that his theory of general relativity interprets the bending of light near the sun by introducing a fallacious “ether structure” or a strange “curvature of space-time” with four dimensions. Note that later Schrodinger (1926) did not follow Einstein’s ideas of four dimensions by formulating his time- independent equation in three dimensions with enormous success. (See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN ).

It is surprising that Newton discovered that mass has the two properties of constant inertial mass m_{o} and gravitational mass m. Under this condition an astronaut with a gravitational mass or a constant inertial mass orbiting the earth at a distance R feels always weightless, because the gravitational centripetal force F_{g }is equal to the inertial force (centrifugal force) F_{c} . That is

( F_{g} = GmM/R^{2} ) = ( F_{c} = m_{o} u^{2}/R )

So Einstein repeating Newton's discovery introduced his “equivalence principle”, which states that it is impossible to distinguish between acceleration and gravity. However this statement is incomplete, because Newton found that all kinds of forces like electric and magnetic ones cause the same acceleration under a constant inertial mass m_{o}. Moreover Einstein’s “equivalence principle” invalidates dramatically the two concepts of rest and relativistic mass of his special relativity. In other words in gravity the acceleration occurs under a constant inertial mass no matter what is the acceleration. However in quantum dynamics the absorption of photons contributres not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ under the application of newton's laws and the laws of electromagnetism.

Einstein also believed incorrectly that the most transparent prediction of his “equivalence principle” is the gravitational red shift, while we revealed that in the quantum dynamics this effect invalidates the so-called “equivalence principle.” For example when the velocity c of the photon is parallel to gravity F_{g} we cannot use the Euler formula. In this case we revealed that the photon cannot behave like a particle with a constant inertial mass, because the gravitational force cannot cause any acceleration along the constant velocity c . So after the application of Newton’s second law we get

F_{g }ds = dW = hdν = [d(mc)/dt]ds = c(dm/dt)ds = dmc^{2}

That is, in the Quantum Dynamics one can see that the well-known formula of Euler (1750)

F_{g }= m_{o}(du/dt)

is modified because the acceleration of the photon along the direction of the velocity c approaches always to zero under a basic length contraction and a time dilation.

On this basis I showed in 1993 that a dipolic photon works always with equal electric attraction and magnetic repulsion in accordance with Newton’s third law. Therefore any velocity greater than the constant speed of light c would give magnetic forces stronger than the electric ones. Under this situation any acceleration along the direction of c will approach to zero under a basic length contraction and a time dilation.

** **

**NEWTON’S FUNDAMENTAL ACTION AT A DISTANCE LED NOT ONLY TO HIS ESTABLISHED LAW OF GRAVITY BUT ALSO TO THE FUNDAMENTAL FORCES OF THE BASIC LAWS OF COULOMB AND AMPERE **

In the original preface to Newton’s *PRINCIPIA* (1687) - probably the greatest single book in the history of science - we find a clear outline:“ I have in this treatise cultivated mathematics as far as it related to philosophy [we would say ‘physical science’]…..for the whole burden of philosophy seems to me to consists in this-from the phenomena of motions to investigate [induce] the forces of nature, and then from these forces to demonstrate [deduce] the other phenomena, and to this end the general propositions of the first and second Books are directed. In the third Book I give an example of this in the explication of the System of the World; for by the propositions mathematically demonstrated in the former books, in the third I derive from the celestial phenomena the forces of gravity with which bodies tend to the sun and the several planets. Then from the forces, by other propositions which are also mathematical, I deduce the motions of the planets, the comets, the moon and the sea [tides].”

In * Principia* Newton said clearly that he was not ready to discuss what gravity was, but he showed how to calculate from simple laws the behavior of all bodies moving under the force of gravity acting at a distance. Fortunately after Newton’s great work of

*the well-established laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) involved experimentally fundamental electric and magnetic forces acting at a distance confirmed by the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement.*

**Principia**Nevertheless after the abandonment of Newton’s particles of light a new false concept of field was introduced by Faraday (1832) which led to the wrong Maxwell’s fields moving through a fallacious ether. It is unfortunate that Maxwell’s equations based on wrong assumptions were formulated with excellent mathematics able to be dominant in electric and magnetic phenomena. Since Einstein did not like the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere based on simple math, and influenced by the speculations of philosophers and mathematical tricks of mathematicians tried to describe again the gravity in terms of difficult math by introducing various hypotheses. In his book "The Evolution of Physics" (1938) Einstein wrote incorrectly that “Science is not a collection of laws but of theories formulated with excellent math.”

Note that according to epistemologists science is divided into the first part of the well-established laws, while the second part contains researches in the “science at the frontiers” in which the task of science is not to discuss the nature with various axioms or hypotheses with excellent math but to discover new laws or to revive the known laws of nature. It is indeed unfortunate that for gravity Einstein reintroduced the false ether by using various hypotheses like gravitational fields and gravitational waves moving in a fallacious “ether structure” or in a strange “curvature of spacetime.” of the Faraday false properties of space and time.

( See EINSTEIN by L. Kaliambos ).In general, despite the successful well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere of forces acting at a distance confirmed accurately by the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement, Einstein’s invalid relativity led to various fallacious theories of nuclear structure and binding. Under this physics crisis in 2002 I presented my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic Nuclear Physics Society , because my discovery of the nuclear structure was based on the well-established electromagnetic laws of forces acting at a distance. (See my DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE ).

In other words I revived the natural laws which solve all the phenomena from the Newtonian mechanics to atomic and nuclear physics. Especially I revealed that the laws of Newton along with the laws of Coulomb and Ampere involving forces acting at a distance invalidate Einstein’s relativity because the Kaufmann experiment which led to the development of the invalid Lorentz transformation and to the wrong special relativity is interpreted accurately by the application of the well-established laws. Also the observations of the bending of light near the sun predicted by Newton and the Advanced of the perihelion of Mercury which led to the development of the invalid general relativity, in fact, are interpreted accurately by the applications of Newton’s laws. Moreover the experiments of the gravitational red shift are interpreted by applying Newton’s second law, while the basic length contraction and the time dilation are interpreted by applying Newton’s third law of instantaneous simultaneity.

Newton’s contributions to science may be grouped under three main heads: the enunciation of the fundamental laws and hence the proof of the empirical laws of planetary motion and other fundamental astronomical matters; the discovery of the nature of white light and the matters of the first importance springing from this; and the discovery of the infinitesimal calculus. The empirical laws of the motions of planets had been enunciated by Kepler, but it was supposed before Newton’s attack on the problem that these motions were governed by such things as mysterious vortices. Newton’s * Principia* the most celebrated work of science also contains the foundations of mathematical physics, treating for example, wave motion for the first time. In general it may be said that he established the power and the universality of the methods of quantitative science.

Nevertheless under the influence of Einstein’s wrong relativity today physicist believe that Newton’s laws are not the well-established laws of nature. Instead it is believed incorrectly that they have a limited application under the assumed “universal law” of Einstein’s mistakes in his relativity. For example in the “Inertial mass-WIKIPEDIA” one reads: “Later on, we will see how our classical definition of mass must be altered if we take into considerations the theory of special relativity, which is more accurate than classical mechanics.” Also in the “ Action at a distance-WIKIPEDIA” one reads: “This problem has been resolved by Einstein’s theory of general relativity in which gravitational interaction is mediated by deformation of space-time geometry. Matter warps the geometry of space-time and these effects are as with electric and magnetic fields propagated at the speed of light”. In fact, after a careful analysis of atomic and nuclear experiments we revealed that under the experiment of French and Tessman who showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields Einstein’s false general relativity of fallacious gravitational fields invalidates his wrong special relativity, because Einstein himself introduced also the constant inertial mass discovered by Newton. Following this confusion the WIKIPEDIA emphasizes that Einstein in his general relativity applied Newton’s the constant inertial mass which is inconsistent with the relativistic mass of his special relativity.

** **

**INTERPRETATION OF MERCURY’S PRECESSION BY APPLYING NEWTON’S UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITY**

In Newtonian orbits of planets in the solar system the observed fact that the orbit of the planet Mercury slowly rotates around the sun, so that the position of closest approach to the sun (perihelion) gradually shifts, had been a long-standing puzzle in mechanics. Einstein in his wrong general relativity believed that the explanation depends on the false idea that energy is associated with mass. In other words he believed incorrectly that as a planet gets close to the sun, it experiences a gravitational force greater than would be expected from Newton’s law of universal gravitation because the effective mass of the sun would be greater.

In fact, the mass of the sun is the same but we may observe a deformation of sun’s spherical shape which increases the gravity when the planet is closer to the sun. Under a detailed knowledge of Newton’s gravity it was found that it is due to the Newtonian Sun-tide. When mercury is very close to the sun, the sun-tide increases the gravity than that predicted by the spherical shapes. (For a detailed analysis see in Google “General relativity or Newtonian Tidal Effect? ”

**THE TRIUMPH OF NEWTON’S FUNDAMENTAL ACTION AT A DISTANCE WITH INSTANEOUS SIMULTANEITY**

It is well-known that the experiment of Michelson and Morley supported Newton’s “I FAIN NO HYPOTHESIS” because in the absence of the false Cartesian ether the force should act at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity (Newton’s third law) . Nevertheless Einstein not only rejected Newton’s third law but also tried to replace Newton’s universal gravitational force acting at a distance by fallacious gravitational waves moving in his incorrect “ether structure” or in his strange “curvature of spacetime”. According to these false ideas gravitation is propagated with the speed of light. However it is fortunate that the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement confirmed accurately the fundamental action at a distance and since it invalidated Einstein’s ideas, Einstein called it “Spooky action at a distance.” On the other hand using the earth-sun system as an example, by assuming that gravity is propagated at the speed of light, one could see that the decrease in the earth’s orbital period would be 15 seconds per year with a corresponding decrease in its mean distance from the sun of 30 miles per year. However these large changes are not supported by observations.

Finally the experiment of French and Tessman showing the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields led me to revive the well-established laws involving forces acting at a distance which led to the discovery that nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. Nevertheless in the “Newton’s laws of Motion-WIKIPEDIA” and especially in chapter “Importance and Validity” one reads the following confusing words: “In modern physics, action at a distance has been completely eliminated, except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement”.

**INTERPRETATION OF GRAVITATIONAL RED SHIFT UNDER A BASIC LENGTH CONTRACTION AND A TIME DILATION DEDUCED FROM NEWTON’S LAWS**

In my model of dipolic photons (1993) I showed that photons behave like moving dipoles. Thus a photon operates at the velocity c with equal electric and magnetic forces acting at the same time. That is, a photon cannot move faster than c because the greater repulsive magnetic force than the electric attraction will violate Newton’s third law of equal forces.

Note that Einstein in his false general relativity tried to explain the gravitational red shift by using the Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics because the relativistic one leads to complications. In our accurate interpretation by using Newton’s second law the force affects not the velocity but the mass under a basic length contraction and a time dilation. Here I notice that according to Newton’s third law of instantaneous simultaneity the photon cannot accelerate along the c direction, because the increase of the magnetic force will violate the third law of Newton. So the acceleration during this gravitational interaction must approach to zero under a length contraction and a time dilation.

Note that Einstein for the gravitational red shift used the Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics

δν/ν = u/c

because the relativistic one leads to complications. Also Einstein tried to unify his false fields without success, while we unified the forces acting at a distance because the electromagnetic properties of photons lead to the same results.(See my UNIFIED FORCES SOLVE THE CRISIS PHYSICS ).