Lefteris Kaliambos (Natural philosopher)

February 22, 2018

In the contradicting relativity theories based on wrong Maxwell's fields moving through a fallacious ether (experiments reject fields), Einstein used the math of the Dutch physicist Lorentz named Lorentz transformations. They are hypothetical measurements of an observer in a coordinate system when it moves at a constant velocity υ with respect to the fallacious ether of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. In such a moving reference frame (inertial frame of the correct Galilean transformations), an observer could use a local coordinate system (Cartesian coordinates) to measure lengths, and time intervals in case in which the motion occurs in a hypothetical ether. In other words the transformations connect the space and time coordinates of an event as measured by an observer in his reference frame moving with respect to the fallacious ether. Especially under the influence of wrong Maxwell's electromagnetic theory (errors in Maxwell's equations) the transformations were formulated under the attempts by Lorentz to explain how the speed of wrong Maxwell's fields could be observed by an observer moving with respect to the fallacious Maxwellian ether.

Hence the Lorentz transformations led to the invalid theories of relativity (experiments reject relativity) in which Einstein introduced the wrong hypothesis that light consists of quanta of fields without mass. According to the history of special relativity the German physicist Kaufmann after his experiments of 1901 in which he showed for a first time the increase of the electron mass at high velocities interpreted his experimental results by using the absorption of the so-called electromagnetic mass introduced by J. J. Thomson in 1881. However Einstein in his theories of relativity hypothesized incorrectly that the observed increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in the quantum physics is due not the absorption of the electromagnetic mass (which is similar to the mass of dipolic photons) but to the relative motion of the electron with respect to Maxwell's ether.

In general, reading the two theories of relativity we see that Einstein in his first theory of special relativity (1905) used the math of Lorentz transformations based on the fallacious ether but he replaced the ether with an observer. However later (1915) in his theory of general relativity he abandoned the observer by reintroducing the ether of Maxwell's fields. Such inconsistencies of Einstein led the physicists M. Barone and F. Selleri to organize the international conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” (1993), where I presented my paper of dipolic photons which invalidate both fields and relativity. For such inconsistencies of Einstein about the ether in the preface of the proceedings of the conference of 1993 M. Barone and F. Selleri wrote: “ **For the ether Einstein himself after 1916 radically modified his previously negative attitude. For example in 1924 wrote that according to special relativity, the ether remains still absolute because of its influence on the inertia of bodies**.”

Historically the concept of ether was introduced by Descartes in his Optics of 1637 but Newton invalidated it not only with his particles of light moving in vacuum but also under the discovery of his third law of instantaneous action and reaction confirmed by the famous experiments of the Quantum Entanglement. Indeed the ether was rejected not only by the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement but also by the experiments of Michelson-Morley (1887) and by the experiments of the Doppler effect. For example in the relative motion between a source of light and an observe we always measure the same frequency ν , while in the case of sound waves moving through a medium (atmosphere) when the source of sound moves with respect to an observer the observer measures different results than those of the same observer moving with respect to the source of sound.

Today it is well known that after the triumph of the Newtonian Mechanics Newton predicted the bending of light close to the Sun confirmed by von Soldner in 1801. (MODERN PHYSICS page 57). Under this condition Planck in1907 in order to explain the bending of light close to the Sun showed that his quanta of light because of their energy E = hν do have mass, while Einstein in his theory of relativity (1905) proposed that light consists of quanta of Maxwell's fields without mass. Under this physics crisis and the fact that the experiment of French-Tessman (1963) showed the fallacy of Maxwell's fields I presented at the international conference of 1993 my paper of dipolic photons which led to my discovery of the law of Photon-Matter Interaction given by

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

Therefore the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ and the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in the quantum physics of non conservative forces is due not the relative motion of the electron with respect to a fallacious ether of Lorentz, but to the absorption of the quantum of light hν/m = c^{2} by the electron under a length contraction dy and a time dilation dt. Indeed in my discovery of the law of Photon-Matter Interaction I found that in the quantum physics the quantum of light is absorbed by an electron under a quantum length contraction dy and a quantum time dilation dt to give the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ and the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ. (Discovery of length contraction). That is, in the quantum physics of non conservative forces when the dipolic photon of energy E = hν and mass m = hν/c^{2} interacts with the charge (-e) of the electron we observe a quantum length contraction and a quantum time dilation, which differs fundamentally from the assumptions of Einstein based on the invalid Lorentz transformations.

Whereas in the Newtonian Mechanics of conservative forces (without absorptions or emissions of light ) the inertial mass M_{o} of a moving body remains always constant under an absolute space and time. That is, in the Newtonian Mechanics of conservative forces it was developed the correct Galilean transformation in which the objects are located in space by means of a coordinate system called reference frame. Such a frame , by definition, is one in which Newton’s first law is valid: Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line. In the history of science Galileo was the first scientist who described the effects of changing from a system S' moving with a uniform velocity u with respect to S. For example a boat (system S') is moving at a velocity u with respect to a lake which is stationary in the reference frame of the earth (system S). When the motion is confined to the x direction of the system S the transformation of Galileo is given by the simple formula

x = x' - ut.

where x' is in the moving system S'. In general the transformation of velocities from one to the other system is obtained by taking the same time derivatives dt = dt' as given by the simple equation

dx/dt = dx'/dt - u.

For example when a hunter on a moving boat at a velocity u is shooting along the perpendicular direction to u the bullet for an observer on the earth will not go along the perpendicular direction, because it contains also the velocity u of the boat, while for the hunter on the moving boat it goes just along the perpendicular direction to u, because both the hunter and the bullet contain the same velocity u. Note that according to Galileo and Newton in the Newtonian Mechanics of conservative forces all natural laws are the same under an absolute space and time.

In other words in the systems of conservative forces one of the first scientists to have studied the nature of light was Newton who in 1704 developed the corpuscular theory according to which light consists of tiny particles moving in vacuum. Newton's view was popularized for over 100 years, but when Young at the beginning of the 19th century showed experimentally the wave nature of light many physicists abandoned the Newtonian particles of light moving in vacuum and tried to determine the “true” rest frame of the universe. However here we clear that Newton in his opticks predicted the periodic properties of his particles of light. In the “Introduction to concepts and theories in physical science” (page 386) we read: “ Ironically it was Newton who suggested that light might have to be somehow assigned also periodic properties in order to account for the phenomena of colors.” This phenomenon of the wave nature of particles (photons or electrons) was confirmed later by the experiments of Davisson and Germer (1926) in the Schrodinger equations of the quantum mechanics.

Nevertheless, since all known waves were transmitted by some medium Maxwell (1865) following the Descartes ideas of an immovable ether abandoned not only Newton's third law of instantaneous action and reaction but also Newton's prediction of the gravitational properties of light confirmed by von Soldner in 1801. In MODERN PHYSICS (page 4) for the Maxwellian ether we read the following words of Maxwell: “ Whatever difficulty we may have in forming a consisting idea of the constitution of the ether, there ca be no doubt that the interplanetary and interstellar space are not empty, but are occupied by a material substance or body which is certainly the largest, and probably the most uniform body of which we have any knowledge.”

Though the ether was tauntingly elusive, sooner or later an ingenious experiment would discover it in case in which the Earth moved with a velocity u relative to the ether as it orbited the Sun. To reveal the difference in the speed of light c parallel and perpendicular to the Earth's velocity through the hypothetical ether, the experiment would have to be of great accuracy. In 1887 Michelson devised such an experiment by using an interferometer with a length L parallel to the velocity u and a length L_{o} = L perpendicular to the velocity u. Thus the time T required for light to travel along the parallel distance L (round trip) is

T = L/(c-u) + L/(c-u) = 2Lc/(c^{2}- u^{2})

Whereas the time T_{o} required for light to travel along the perpendicular length L_{o} = L (round trip) is

T_{o} = 2L_{o} /(c^{2}- u^{2})^{0.5}.

Since L= L_{o} and writing u/c = β we get T/T_{o} = 1/(1- β^{2})^{0.5} = γ

Here we clear that the results of the experiment were a deep disappointment of the validity of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory, because Michelson and Morley found that T = T_{o} which means that β = 0 and γ = 1. In other words they found that u = 0 which means that the Maxwellian ether cannot exist.

However despite the rejection of ether by the experiments Lorentz under the influence of Maxwell's ether in order to adjust the results of the Michelson experiment in the Maxwellian ether, suggested that the linear dimension L of the interferometer of Michelson contracts as L = L_{o}/γ along the line of the motion u of the earth through an hypothetical reference frame of ether. Here the factor γ = 1/(1- β^{2})^{0.5} should depend on u since β = u/c which means that under a hypothetical ether we must observe always γ > 1. Under such a wrong hypothesis in 1904 Lorentz modified the Galilean transformation by writing

x = γ(x'–ut) and for time T = γT_{o} .

Here we see that the invalid Lorentz transformations which led to the invalid relativity were formulated under the violation of the famous experiment of Michelson-Morley. Thus, when Michelson and Einstein met briefly in in 1931 Michelson remarked that he regretted that his experiment might have been responsible for giving birth to such a monster referring to the theory of relativity. (MODERN PHYSICS page 9). In the same way Maxwell in 1865 developed his electromagnetic theory of fields by introducing in the induction law the fallacious electric field E which violates not only Newton's third law of instantaneous action and reaction but also he experiments of Faraday (1832). In the “Fundamentals of electricity and magnetism” (page 279) we read the summarized results of Faraday : “ All these results show that the power of inducing electric currents is circumferentially excited by a magnetic resultant.”

However under the influence of Einstein's relativity today many physicists continue to believe that the Lorentz transformations occur in the systems of conservative forces (without absorptions or emissions of light) and supersede the Galilean transformation in such a way that the Galilean transformation is only an approximation at small velocities. For example in the article "Lorentz transformation-WIKIPEDIA" we read the following incorrect ideas: "The Galilean transformation is a good approximation only at relative speeds much smaller than the speed of light. Lorentz transformations have a number of unintuitive features that do not appear in Galilean transformations."

In fact, both the wrong Maxwell's fields and the invalid Lorentz transformations are replaced by my discovery of the law of Photon-Matter interaction based on the dipole nature of photons. For example when the dipolic photon interacts with the electron charge (-e) Ι found a quantum time dilation and a quantum length contraction under the application of Newton's third law. In this case we see that during the absorption of the quantum hν/m by an electron the magnetic force F_{m } appears after the electric force F_{e}= E_{y}(-e) because of the velocity dy/dt. However under Newton's third law the two forces should appear at the same time. Under this condition the velocity dy/dt approaches to zero under the contraction of dy and the dilation of dt. In other words when the dipolic photon interacts with the charge of the electron according to the two conservation laws of energy and mass we observe that the quantum hν/m is absorbed by the electron, which contributes to the increases of its energy ΔΕ and to its mass ΔΜ under a quantum length contraction and a quantum time dilation.

To conclude I emphasize that the wrong Maxwell's fields and the invalid Lorentz transformations were formulated under the violation of experiments, while the discoveries of natural laws were based on a large number of experiments.