By Prof. Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) Τ. E. Institute of Larissa Greece

February 7, 2015

In my paper ENERGY DOES NOT TURN TO MASS I cleared that Einstein himself incorrectly pointed out: “Pre-relativity physics contains two conservation laws of fundamental importance, namely, the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of mass; these two appear there as completely independent of each other. Through relativity theory they melt together into one principle”. Under this invalid idea Einstein’s equation E = mc^{2} tells us that mass and energy are two facets of the same coin, energy. The corollary of that idea was that the two apparently separate conservation laws of fundamental physics, conservation of energy and conservation of mass, are one, conservation of mass- energy. In this photo I am with the eminent physicist Dr Th. Kalogeropoulos, who came from Princeton University to present work at the nuclear conference held at NCSR "Democritos " (2002), where I presented also my paper "Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism".wich

invalidates Einstein's ideas. As an Einstein student under the influence of the contradicting relativity theories initially he criticized my discovery of the **law of energy and mass** which modifies the so-called “mass-energy equivalence”.

Physicists also believed incorrectly that one can arrive at the mass- energy equivalence by another route as in the so-called annihilation. In “Annihilation-WIKIPEDIA” one reads the following wrong paragraph:

“When an electron and a positron collide to annihilate and create gamma rays, energy is given off. Both particles have a rest energy of 0.511 mega electron volts (MeV). **When the mass of the two particles is converted entirely into energy***, *this rest energy is what is given off.* *The energy is given off in the form of the gamma rays. Each of the gamma rays has an energy of 0.511 MeV."

Of course in this false idea which did much to retard the progress of physics Einstein influenced by his fallacious massless quanta of fields did not use the successful idea of the Bohr model according to which the energy ΔE of the charge-charge interaction between the negative electron and the positive proton turns into the energy hν of the generated photon. So he avoided to write the very obvious energy ΔE of the charge-charge interaction between the positive positron and the negative electron which turns into the energy 2hν of the two generated two photons.

In fact, we do not apply Einstein’s incorrect idea ΔM = hν but my fundamental equation ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c^{2} of my MATTER-PHOTON TRANSFORMATION according to which the electromagnetic energy ΔΕ of the charged particles (electron and positron) turns into the energy hν of the photons, while the mass defect ΔΜ of the electron-positron interaction turns into the mass m = hν/c^{2 }of the generated photons. Of course my discovery of the above equation of the Matter-Photon Transformation which rejects Einstein’s ideas is consistent with the two fundamental laws of conservation of energy and conservation of mass developed by the Greekphilosophers and confirmed by experiments.

Nevertheless, today physicists under the influence of Einstein’s invalid relativity theory continue to believe that Einstein was always correct and in this case of the invalid mass-energy conservation in order to support Einstein’s relativity they emphasize that Einstein himself never said that the mass should be turn into energy. For example one WIKIA contributor wrote: “Einstein never said mass can turn into energy or vice-verse. He simply said that the mass (i.e., the factor that causes inertia) of any system is c^2 times the total energy content. Mass and energy are one and the same. Mass is not destroyed when energy is created during nuclear reactions. They are one and the same, as long as you are talking about relativistic mass. Photons do have a relativistic mass, and this was never denied. Anything that has energy has a relativistic mass equal to its energy divided by speed of light squared. But photons have a zero rest mass, which is what one usually means when one uses the term *mass* in the context of subatomic particles. Photons must have a zero rest mass because only then can a body attain the speed of light.”

On this point I clear that Einstein was wrong in his theories of relativity. In my papers announced to many universities arround the world I also showed that Einstein was only correct in the explanation of the Brownian movement based on the kinetic theory of Newton’s fundamental physics. (See my WRONG AND CORRECT EINSTEIN). So the WIKIA contributor under the influence of the invalid relativity uses wrong concepts like the wrong **relativistic mass** and **rest mass**. In fact, according to natural laws discovered by Newton a particle in gravity has neither rest mass nor relativistic one but a constant inertial mass used by Einstein in his invalid general relativity. ( See my INVALID GENERAL RELATIVITY and NEWTON INVALIDATES EINSTEIN). On the other hand Einstein many times said that the mass defect turns into energy, because he did not know that the proton and neutron have sufficient charge distributions responsible for the binding energy ΔΕ = 2.2246 MeV. In fact, the proton has charges +8e/3 along the periphery and -5e/3 in the center, while neutron has -8e/3 along the periphery and +8e/3 in the center. Such charge distributions ineracting according to electromagnetic laws are able to give the binding energy ΔE = 2.2246 MeV of the deuteron. (See my NEW ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS). So in the creation of the deuteron one must apply not Einstein’s wrong formula ΔΜ = hν but my fundamental MATTER – PHOTON TRANSFORMATION given by:

ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c^{2}

According to the conservation law of energy I discovered that ΔΕ = 2.2246 MeV turns to the photon energy hν = 2.2246 MeV and according to the conservation law of mass the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the photon mass m = hν/c^{2}.

In the same way according to the two conservation laws of energy and mass in the Bohr model the Coulomb energy of the proton-electron system ΔΕ = 13,6 eV turns into the photon energy hν = 13.6 eV and the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the photon mass m = hν/c^{2 } . That is, wee see here that my discovery of the fundamental equation of the Matter-Photon Interaction is consistent with the two conservation laws of the fundamental physics, while Einstein in his hteory of invalid mass-energy conservation violated the two fundamental laws of physics. For example in Einstein's book (1938) “The Evolution of Physics” Full text( page 54 ) one reads Einstein’s following contradicting paragraphs :

“If we regard the whole universe as a closed system, we can proudly announce with the physicists of the nineteenth century that the energy of the universe is invariant, that no part of it can ever be created or destroyed. Our two concepts of substance are, then, matter and energy. Both obey conservation laws: An isolated system cannot change either in mass or in total energy. Matter has weight but energy is weightless. We have therefore two different concepts and two conservation laws. **Are these ideas still to be taken seriously**? Or has this apparently well-founded picture been changed in the light of newer developments? It has! Further changes in the two concepts are connected with the theory of relativity.”

Under such invalid ideas I studied carefully the electromagnetic interaction in the system of electron-positron and I found that the electromagnetic energy ΔΕ of the two interacting charged particles is responsible for invalidating Einstein’s wrong Mass-Energy Conservation under the two fundamental laws of conservation of energy and mass , because ΔE turns to 2hν and the mass defect ΔΜ turns to the photon mass. Nevertheless in “Conservation of energy-WIKIPEDIA” one reads the following wrong paragraph:

“Einstein's 1905 theory of special relativity showed that it corresponds to an equivalent amount of rest energy. This means that it can be converted to or from equivalent amounts of other (non-material) forms of energy, for example kinetic energy, potential energy, and electromagnetic radiant energy. When this happens, as recognized in twentieth century experience, rest mass is not conserved, unlike the total mass or total energy. All forms of energy contribute to the total mass and total energy. For example an electron and a positron each have rest mass. They can perish together, converting their combined rest energy into photons having electromagnetic radiant energy, but no rest mass”.

Under such fallacious ideas today physicists continue to believe that the gigantic energy of the atomic bomb is due to the conversion of the mass defect into the nuclear energy.

To conclude I clear that in my paper “NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM” (2002) I discovered that the immense nuclear power in nuclear bomb is due to the repulsive energy ΔΕ of positive protons . Therefore such a repulsive electromagnetic energy deduced from the electromagnetic laws and experiments is responsible for the immense nuclear bomb.