By Prof. Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T. E . Institute of Larissa Greece

August 30, 2015

Although the discovery of
the quanta of energy E = hν by Planck (1900) showed that
Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory (1865) cannot explain the optical phenomena
of atomic physics , today many physicists believe that Maxwell’s equations are
the correct mathematical formulations of laws for describing the self
propagating fields as properties of space responsible for our “seeing” the
stars. Whereas, the fundamental action at a distance of the well-established
laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) could be a troublesome idea under the
assumed triumph of Maxwell’s equations. In this photo I speak for Einstein’s inconcistencies about the ether of Maxwell's invalid theory, with the Italian physicists M. Barone and F. Selleri, who organized in Olympia the international conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” (1993) where I presented the dipolic photons having energy E = hν and mass m = hν/c^{2}.

According to the
well-established laws of electromagnetism the electric and magnetic force acting
at a distance on one charge was considered as being caused by the presence at
some distance away of another charge. Whereas, in the wrong concept of field
introduced by Faraday in 1832 one charge is thought of as producing a “field”
everywhere in space which should account for the force on the other charge. In
fact, for the simple solutions of difficult problems the electric field E = F_{e}/q
of the well-established law of Coulomb is a vector quantity which gives, at
every point in space, the electric force F_{e} that would act at a
distance on a unit positive charge that is placed at that point.(Intensity and false field).

Faraday in his induction law using his wrong concept of field introduced the so-called electromotive force EMF = W/q given by

EMF = W/q = dΦ/dt

Where Φ is the magnetic flux.

In his paper “Experimental Researches in Electricity”(1832) Faraday summarizes that a circumferential magnetism is exhibited by an electric current. In other cases since the changing magnetic vector B increases at a rate dB/dt, Faraday found also that W/q = (dB/dt)S .

Particularly Faraday for explaining the induction law imagined that the space surrounding the magnet and the coil was in a state of tension like stretched rubber bands and he called these bands “lines of force”. Note that later the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement confirmed the fundamental action at a distance introduced by Newton in his well-established laws.

On this basis in 1845
Neumann discovered experimentally that the so-called motional EMF occurs when in
a xy system a conductor of length l is parallel to y and moves with a velocity
u = dx/dt. In this simple case the magnetic force F_{m} = quB_{ } is parallel to l. Here the vector B_{ }which is perpendicular to the xy plane is
not the field of Faraday but the vector B = F_{m}/qu used for the simple calculations of the
magnetic force F_{m} acting at a distance. Therefore

EMF = W/q = F_{m}l/q
= (F_{m}/q)l = (quB/q)l = Bul

This equation also can be written as

EMF = W/q = Bul = Bldx/dt = BdS/dt = dΦ /dt

Since Faraday found also that

(BdS)/dt = (dB/dt)S

We may write

(F_{m }/q)l = (dB/dt)S

Or in differential form one can write

(F_{m}/q)dl =
(dB/dt) dS

That is, the Faraday induction,
based on the wrong concept of field, in fact,
is due to the magnetic force per unit charge ( F_{m}/q) of the
Ampere law acting at a distance, no matter what is moving in accordance with
the Calileo principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws.

In the same way the
experiments of the capacitor-inductance systems showed that the electric energy
( W_{e}) per unit volume of the Coulomb law between the plates of a charged capacitor is
given by

W_{e }/vol = ε_{ο}Ε^{2}/2

Also the magnetic energy W_{m}
per unit volume of the induction law associated with the existence of current in the
inductance is given by

W_{m}/vol = B^{2}/2μ_{o}

Then under the conservation law of energy one finds that E/B = c as

ε_{ο}E^{2}/2 = B^{2}/2μ_{o} or E^{2}/B^{2} = 1/ε_{ο}μ_{ο} = c^{2} and E/B = c

Note that 1/ε_{ο}μ_{ο} = K/k = c^{2} found by Weber in 1856.
Here K is the constant of the Coulomb force and k is the constant of the
magnetic force of the Ampere law.

However, though Neumann in
1845 showed experimentally that the Faraday induction is consistent with the
magnetic force of the Ampere law, later (1865) Maxwell in order to explain the
electromagnetic properties of light (discovered by Faraday in 1845) abandoned
the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere involving forces acting at a
distance. Instead he accepted the wrong concept of field and introduced two
wrong postulations. In the first postulation Maxwell hypothesized incorrectly
that the magnetic force per unit charge (F_{m}/q) is an electric field
(E). Thus the correct differential equation of the Faraday induction

(F_{m}/q)dl = (dB/dt) dS

took the form of the first invalid differential equation of Maxwell given by

Edl = (dB/dt) dS

This invalid equation under the wrong postulation that a changing magnetic field gives rise to an electric field is the biggest error in the history of electromagnetism, because it led to Einstein’s contradicting relativity theories.

The second postulation of
Maxwell was his hypothesis that a changing electric field between the plates of a capacitor
produces a hypothetical electric current (called displacement current) able to
give a magnetic force. However the experiment of French and Tessman in 1963
showed that changing electric fields between the plates of a capacitor cannot
give magnetic forces. (See the "Displacement Current and Magnetic Fields-ADS"). On the other hand in case in which the displacement current (I_{d})
is correct one can prove that such a current violates the Ampere law.

It is well known that Ampere formulated his
law by using a current ( I ) of high symmetry
(very long wire), while the hypothetical displacement current
I_{d} is of short length (between the plates of a capacitor).

Using the vector B the Ampere law at a distace r from a current I of high symmetry is given by

B = 2kI/r = μ_{ο}I/2πr

Whereas Maxwell using a hypothetical current violated
the Ampere law, because he used the I_{d} of short length as

B2πr = μ_{ο}I_{d}

and making the wrong hypothesis that I_{d} between the plates of a capacitor is equal to ε_{ο}(dE/dt)S he formulated his second invalid differential equation
given by

Bdl = μ_{ο }ε_{ο}(dE/dt)dS

Then comparing these two differential equations he found that

EdE/BdB = (E^{2}/2) / (B^{2}/2) = 1/ε_{ο}μ_{ο} = c^{2} or E^{2}/B^{2} = 1/ε_{ο}μ_{ο} = c^{2} and E/B = c

In other words Maxwell under his two wrong postulations formulated the two invalid equations which give the correct E/B = c of the experiments, because he tried to find hypothetical symmetries like the postulation of the hypothetical displacement current. So he violated the well-established laws of electromagnetism and developed his wrong electromagnetic theory involving wrong fields moving through a fallacious ether. Ironically later (1905) Einstein for developing his invalid relativity abandoned the well-established laws of electromagnetism and accepted Maxwell’s fallacious idea of electric field when a magnet moves with respect to a conductor. So he violated the principle of relativity because the relative motion of a conductor and a magnet produces always magnetic force no matter what is moving, in accordance with Galileo’s principle of relativity.

Meanwhile, in 1881 J.J Thomson recognized that the electromagnetic energy is equivalent to a mass called “electromagnetic mass”. Such a mass which led me to discover the photon mass was used by Kaufmann who explained his experiment (1902) according to which the absorbed energy by an electron increases not only the electron energy but also the electron mass in accordance with the two conservation laws of energy and mass. Moreover the two American physicists Michelson and Morley in 1887 rejected experimentally the Maxwellian ether in favor of Newton’s particles of light (1704) having mass.

Historically, in 1785
Coulomb formulated the well-established law of force acting at a distance. He
also tried to formulate the law for the magnetic force but without success,
because prior to 1820 electric and magnetic forces were regarded as two
separate interactions . That year, Oersted demonstrated that an electric
current generates a magnetic force which led to the discovery of the Ampere law
(1820) of the magnetic force acting at a distance. Later Weber (1856) found experimentally that
the constants K and k of electric and magnetic forces respectively are given by
the simple relation K/k = c^{2}
where c is the speed of light .
For simplicity, when an electric dipole with opposite charges (+q and
-q) moves at a velocity u, with respect to the source , and the dipole axis r
is perpendicular to the velocity, the two basic laws of Coulomb and Ampere give
F_{e }and F_{m} acting at a distance as:

F_{e} = Kq^{2}/r^{2}
and F_{m} = kq^{2}u^{2}/r^{2}
. So F_{e}/F_{m} = c^{2}/u^{2} .

This simple result of unified forces of laws acting at a distance led me to develop the model of dipolic particles or dipolic photons. (See my “Impact of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles”(1993). For u = c the moving dipole is just a spinning dipole photon and gives time varying

E_{y}/B_{z}
= c

under the applications of the Coulomb and the Ampere law.

Here the E_{y} and
B_{z} represent the vectors of electric and magnetic intensities used
for the simple calculations of the electric and
the magnetic force respectively acting at a distance.

However under the correct E/B = c deduced from the invalid Maxwell's differential equations , today many physicists believe that Maxwell’s equations are the triumph of electromagnetism and that he was the first who unified the electric and magnetic fields. In “ James Clerk Maxwell-WIKIPEDIA” one reads:

“His discoveries helped usher in the era of modern physics, laying the foundation for such fields as special relativity and quantum mechanics. Many physicists regard Maxwell as the 19th-century scientist having the greatest influence on 20th-century physics. His contributions to the science are considered by many to be of the same magnitude as those of Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein.In the millennium poll—a survey of the 100 most prominent physicists—Maxwell was voted the third greatest physicist of all time, behind only Newton and Einstein. On the centenary of Maxwell's birthday, Einstein described Maxwell's work as the "most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton".

In fact, Maxwell used Faraday’s wrong concepts of fields and Weber’s correct experiments on electromagnetism. Maxwell in his paper “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field” goes on to discuss some of his results in the following paragraphs: “The conception of the propagation of transverse magnetic disturbances to the exclusion of normal ones is distinctly set forth by Professor Faraday in his Thoughts on Ray Vibrations... and that the velocity of propagation is the velocity υ found from experiments such as those of Weber...”

Unfortunately, Faraday tried to explain his induction law by using the wrong concept of field. Therefore, scientists at the time widely rejected his wrong theoretical ideas, because Neumann showed experimentally that the induction law is consistent with the magnetic force of theAmpere law acting at a distance. Nevertheless Maxwell in 1865 developed his electromagnetic theory with wrong fields moving through a fallacious ether. In Maxwell’s papers, the time-varying aspect of the Faraday induction is expressed as a differential equation which Oliver Heaviside referred to as Faraday’s law even though it is different from the original version of Faraday’s law, and does not describe motional EMF. To conclude we emphasize that both the gravitational and electromagnetic properties of light led to my discovery of dipole nature of photon having mass and applications of the natural laws on such dipole photons led to my discovery of unified forces while the wrong concept of field of the Faraday induction used by Maxwell did much to retard the progress of physics because it led to the contradicting relativity theories.

Historically, Descartes in
his *Optics* (1637) proposed that light is associated with a
medium called “ether” used also later by Maxwell (1865) in his electromagnetic
theory of wrong fields moving through the Cartesian ether. Although the concept
of ether had a considerable influence on the ideas of physicists at that time,
Newton in his* Opticks* (1704) concluded that the Cartesian
theory of light could not account for* polarization*. This would be
easy enough to understand if light is a stream of rectangular particles
moving in vacuum but rather more difficult if light is a wave
disturbance in a medium. In spite of Newton’s criticism, other scientists such
as Hooke and Huygens continued to think of light in terms of impulses in a
medium. This was not yet the “wave theory” in the modern sense, because the
periodic nature of the pulses had not yet been recognized; ironically it was
Newton who suggested that light might have to be somehow assigned also
periodic properties in order to account for the phenomena of colors.
Unfortunately Young (1803) who confirmed the wave nature of light abandoned
Newton’s corpuscular theory in favor of the Huygens theory which led to
Maxwell’s wrong fields moving through a fallacious ether (1865).

In Maxwell's papers, the time-varying aspect of the Faraday induction is expressed as a differential equation which Oliver Heaviside referred to as Faraday's law even though it is different from the original version of Faraday's law, and does not describe motional EMF which is the result of a magnetic force acting at a distance. Note also that the concept of ether was rejected by the experiment of Michelson and Morley (1887) in favor of Newton’s rectangular particles, which provide gravitational properties confirmed by Soldner in 1801. Nevertheless later (1905 and 1916) Einstein under his fallacious massless quanta of the Maxwell wrong fields developed his invalid theories of relativity. It is of interest to note that the gravitational and electromagnetic properties of light led to my discovery of unified forces, while the invalid equations of Maxwell lead to complications.