**By Prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T. E.Institute of Larissa. Greece**

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper IMPACT OF MAXWELL’S EQUATION OF DISPLACEMENT CURRENT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS AND COMPARISON OF THE MAXWELLIAN WAVES WITH OUR MODEL OF DIPOLIC PARTICLES presented at the International conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics”( Olympia,1993). The paper invalidates Einstein’s relativity and Maxwell’s moving fields by applying the forces acting at a distance of the well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere .

Moreover one can see my paper

"Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism" (2003)The paper reveals the nuclear structure by using the electromagnetic forces of the well-established laws and invalidates both Einstein’s relativity and the theories of the Standard model developed after the abandonment of natural laws. (See in User Kaliambos the above papers along with the “ Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures” published in Ind.J.Th. Phys. in 2008). You can see also my paper "EXPERIMENTS REJECT RELATIVITY".presented also at the 12th symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society(N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", 2002).

IT IS INDEED UNFORTUNATE THAT AFTER THE GREAT INFLUENCE OF EINSTEIN’S RELATIVITY, TODAY THE WELL-ESTABLISHED LAWS OF NEWTON ARE ASSUMED TO HAVE A LIMITED APPLICATION. MOREOVER THOUGH THE FAMOUS EXPERIMENT OF MICHELSON AND MORLEY REJECTED MAXWELL’S ETHER, IT IS ALSO BELIEVED THAT NEWTON’S FUNDAMENTAL ACTION AT A DISTANCE WITH INSTANTANEOUS SIMULTANEITY IS INVALID UNDER THE VARIOUS HYPOTHESES OF EINSTEIN, WHO REINTRODUCED THE FALLACIOUS “ETHER STRUCTURE” OR SUGGESTED A STRANGE “CURVATURE OF SPACE TIME” LIKE THE FARADAY FALSE VACUUM, WITH WRONG GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS OR GRAVITATIONAL WAVES. BUT SINCE THEORIES CANNOT REPLACE THE NATURAL LAWS, ALL THE EXPERIMENTS OF THE QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT CONFIRMED ACCURATELY THE FUNDAMENTAL ACTION AT A DISTANCE, WHILE THE EXPERIMENT OF FRENCH AND TESSMAN SHOWED THE FALLACY OF MAXWELL’S FIELDS. UNDER THIS CONDITION I DISCOVERED THE NUCLEAR STRUCTURE BASED ON THE WELL-ESTABLISHED LAWS INVOLVING FORCES ACTING AT A DISTANCE. ON THIS BASIS USING ALSO THE LENGTH CONTRACTION AND THE TIME DILATION DEDUCED FROM NEWTON’S THIRD LAW I FOUND THAT THE WELL-ESTABLISHED LAWS OF NEWTON INTERPRET DRAMATICALLY ALL EXPERIMENTS OF THE INCORRECT EINSTEIN’S RELATIVITY, WHICH VIOLATED THE CONSERVATION LAWS OF THE NEWTONIAN MECHANICS AND DID MUCH TO RETARD THE PROGRESS OF PHYSICS.

**THE FALLACIOUS CARTESIAN ETHER WAS OVERTHROWN BY NEWTON’S DISCOVERY OF THE UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITY**

Isaac Newton was born in 1642. By 1666, at 24, he had quietly made spectacular discoveries in mathematics (binomial theorem, differential calculus), optics (theory of colors), and mechanics. Referring to this period, Newton once wrote:

“And the same year I begun to think of gravity extending to the orb of the Moon, and …from Kepler’s Rule [third law]…I deduced that the forces which keep the Planets in their orbs must [be] reciprocally as the squares of their distances from the centers about which they revolve.”

It is well-known that with Tycho’s great work about the velocities of planets moving around the sun Kepler in 1619 was able to find a connection between the motions of the different planets in his third empirical law, in which he states that if u be the velocity of any chosen planet and R be the radius of the orbit (nearly a circle) of that planet, then u^{2}R = K where K is a constant having the same value of all planets.

Newton in 1665 formulated the centripetal acceleration

α = u^{2}/R or the centripetal force F = m_{o}u^{2}/R

due to the gravitational force acting at a distance and was one of the first to recognize that all these phenomena are due to the natural tendency –inertia – of any body with a constant inertial mass m_{o }to keep on moving in the same direction if it is not constrained to do otherwise. Then, from the experiments and observations of Galileo Newton had found that the inertial mass m_{o} of a planet is equal to the gravitational mass m which can interact gravitationally with the mass M of the sun as

F = GmM/R^{2}

where G is a constant of proportionality whose the value was determined later by Cavendish (1798).

So equating this with the centripetal force one gets that

u^{2}R = GM = K

Historically, after a great influence of the Aristotelian ether for the origin of the centripetal force needed to keep the planets in orbits a dominant picture had given by the great philosopher Descartes (1596-1650) who proposed that all space was filled with a subtle invisible fluid of contiguous material corpuscles; the planets of the solar system were supposed to be caught in a huge vortex-like motion of this fluid about the sun. This idea was attractive to the minds of the day, and consequently was widely accepted. However Newton proved that this mechanism could not account for the quantitative observations on planetary motion as summarized, for example, in Kepler’s empirical laws.

Newton in his * Principia* published in 1687 proposed a dramatic solution: the centripetal force on the planets is nothing but a gravitational attraction acting at a distance. So in his two laws of motion he formulated also his third law of instantaneous simultaneity. But it is indeed unfortunate that later similar false ideas like Einstein’s wrong fields, or gravitational waves in a fallacious “ether structure” or in a strange “curvature of spacetime” led to the physics crisis. Also such fallacious ideas led to the so- called Standard Model according to which forces are assumed to be carried by strange particles like “gravitons”, “virtual photons”, and “gluons”. In fact, a careful analysis of nuclear experiments led me to discover the nuclear structure governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism involving forces acting at a distance. (See my New revolution in physics and the Crisis of field and relativity .

**NEWTON’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE NATURE OF LIGHT SOLVES THE PHYSICS CRISIS**

Newton was the first to express with full clarity the modern attitude to science that its task is to discover the laws or to apply the well-established laws which the natural phenomena obey and not to discuss the ultimate nature of things in a philosophical manner, like the later developed wrong theories of Maxwell’s fields moving through a fallacious ether (1865), Einstein’s special relativity (1905), and general relativity (1916), in which Einstein reintroduced the ether in his incorrect “ether structure” under a strange “curvature of spacetime.” Like the strange space of Faraday who believed that some properties of vacuum around currents and magnets are responsible for electric and magnetic interactions. Unfortunately these theories of Einstein were based not only on the incorrect Faraday properties of space and time but also on a new fallacious ether after the rejection of Newton’s great work of **Opticks''***(*1704*),* when Young and Fresnel reintroduced the fallacious ether after the double-slit experiment (1803).

Despite the experiments of the Michelson and Morley (1887) who rejected the ether, the famous experiments of the quantum Entanglement (1935) confirming accurately the fundamental action at a distance, the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) who showed the fallacy of Maxwell's fields, and my discovery of the nuclear structure (2002) based on the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere involving forces acting at a distance, today physicists try to apply the theories of Einstein’s relativity, as well as all theories of the so-called Standard Model which abandoned the application of the fundamental action at a distance of natural laws in favor of false concepts and hypotheses developed in a * *philosophical manner that some fallacious fields or hypothetical particles in nature are able to carry the forces .

It is well-known that in 1644 Descartes published his * Principles of Philosophy* and for describing the nature of interactions he postulated that all space is filled with pieces of matter that can interact only when they touch. Influenced by such wrong ideas Maxwell developed his theory of fields moving trough a fallacious ether (1865). Later Feynman (1950) in his theory of the Quantum Electrodynamics influenced by both Einstein’s fields with massless photons and Yukawa’s meson theory, introduced the false concept that the electromagnetic forces of long range could be carried by strange massless photons called “virtual photons” ( as quanta of fields), though the electric field for simplifying the problems of the Coulomb law was defined as a force per unit charge, which cannot carry the same force.

From the time of Newton until the early years of the nineteenth century, the particle theory of light was favored by most physicists. But after Young’s double-slit experiment (1803), Fresnel rejected Newton’s particles of light in favor of the theory of Huygens (1690) involving waves moving through a fallacious ether, though Newton suggested the periodic properties of light, and predicted the bending of light near the sun confirmed by Soldner in 1801.

Influenced by Aristotle the philosopher Descartes begins his * Optics *(1637) by asserting that light is associated with motion in a medium ( Aristotelian ether) , more precisely with a disturbance propagated quickly by mechanical means from one place to another.

However Newton discovered that such a theory could not account for the phenomenon of polarization, a property of light unknown to Descartes. To Newton it was clear that this behavior could be explained only by assuming that the ray has “sides” so that its properties depend on its orientation with respect to the axis (direction of the propagation) of the ray. This would be easy enough to understand if the ray is a stream of rectangular particles, but rather more difficult if light is a wave disturbance in a medium. Note that Newton using the mass of his particles of light predicted the bending of light near the sun. Today all experiments of atomic and nuclear physics confirm accurately Newton’s massive particles of light, because they showed that light consists of particles (photons) having a mass m = hν/c^{2}, while Einstein after the influence of Maxwell’s fields moving through a fallacious ether believed that photons are massless particles.

In spite of Newton’s criticisms, other seventeenth –century scientists such as Robert Hooke and Christian Huygens continued to think of light in terms of impulses in the false ether. This was not yet the “wave theory” in the modern sense, because the periodic nature of the pulses had not yet been recognized. Ironically it was Newton who suggested that light might have to be somehow assigned also periodic properties in order to account for the phenomena of colors. Newton stated his point of view in the first words of his **Opticks''***: *“My design in this book is not to explain the Properties of Light by Hypotheses, but to propose and prove them by Reason and Experiment”*.*

Taking into account the well-established laws and a number of important ideas and experiments like Newton’s great works of ** Opticks **and

**Principia''***,*the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere, the experiment of Faraday (1845) who presented the electromagnetic properties of light, the experiment of Michelson and Morley (1887) who rejected Maxwell’s mistakes of ether, the quanta of Planck (1900) and Einstein (1905), the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement, and the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) who showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields, I developed in 1993 the model of dipolic photons which invalidates both Maxwell’s moving fields and Einstein’s relativity for unifying the laws of gravity and electromagnetism under a basic length contraction and a time dilation deduced from Newton’s laws of motion. (See my Unified forces solve the crisis of physics )

*.*

In this direction I showed that Einsten’s deductive reasoning that “Science is not the collection of laws but of theories” is an incorrect philosophical method which did much to retard the progress of science. Instead I took into account Newton’s following paragraph of his * Opticks*:

“This analysis consists in making Experiments and Observations, and in drawing general Conclusions from them by **Induction** and admitting of no Objections against the Conclusions but such as taken from Experiments or other certain Truths.”

**NEWTON’S PRINCIPIA LED NOT ONLY TO HIS ESTABLISHED LAWS BUT ALSO TO THE FORCES OF THE LAWS OF COULOMB AND AMPERE WITH FORCES ACTING AT A DISTANCE**

In the original preface to Newton’s work - probably the greatest single book in the history of science we find a clear outline:“ I have in this treatise cultivated mathematics as far as it related to philosophy [we would say ‘physical science’]…..for the whole burden of philosophy seems to me to consists in this-from the phenomena of motions to investigate [induce] the forces of nature, and then from these forces to demonstrate [deduce] the other phenomena, and to this end the general propositions of the first and second Books are directed. In the third Book I give an example of this in the explication of the System of the World; for by the propositions mathematically demonstrated in the former books, in the third I derive from the celestial phenomena the forces of gravity with which bodies tend to the sun and the several planets. Then from the forces, by other propositions which are also mathematical, I deduce the motions of the planets, the comets, the moon and the sea [tides].”

In * Principia* Newton said clearly that he was not ready to discuss what gravity was, but he showed how to calculate from simple laws the behavior of all bodies moving under the force of gravity acting at a distance. But there remained one feature which gravely bothered Newton, because Descartes in his

*suggested that the bodies can exert forces on one another through a fallacious ether. At the end of Book III of the*

**Principles of Philosophy***, Newton put his remarks:*

**Principia''**“But hitherto I have not been able to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from phenomena [ observation and experimentation], and **I FEIN NO HYPOTHESES**….To us it is enough that gravity does really exist, and act according to the laws which we have explained, and abundantly serves to account for all the motions of the celestial bodies and of our sea.”

Fortunately after Newton’s great work of* ***Principia** *the well-established laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) involved experimentally fundamental electric and magnetic forces acting at a distance*.

Nevertheless after the abandonment of Newton’s particles of light a new false concept of field was introduced by Faraday (1832) which led to the wrong Maxwell’s fields moving through a fallacious ether. Since Maxwell’s equations were formulated with excellent mathematics, Einstein did not like the well-established laws of very simple math. So influenced by the speculations of philosophers and mathematical tricks of mathematicians he tried to describe again the gravity in terms of difficult math by introducing various hypotheses, because he believed incorrectly that “Science is not a collection of laws but of theories formulated with excellent math.” Note that according to epistemologists science is divided into the first part of the well-established laws, while the second part contains researches in the “science at the frontiers” in which the task of science is not to discuss the nature with various axioms or hypotheses with excellent math but to discover new laws or to revive the known laws of nature. So for gravity Einstein reintroduced the false ether by using also various hypotheses like gravitational fields and gravitational waves moving in a fallacious “ether structure” or in a strange “curvature of spacetime.” of the Faraday false properties of space and time. ( See Einstein by Lefteris Kaliambos ).

Also under the influence of Einstein’s wrong relativity (according to which the nuclear binding is due to the mass defect) as well as the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron (1932) led to the abandonment of natural laws of forces acting at a distance. So there were developed various wrong “strong interactions” by Heisenberg, Yukawa, and Gell-mann by assuming that nuclear binding is due to various particles like electrons, mesons, and hypothetical gluons. On the other hand a false theory of “weak interaction” was developed by Fermi who believed that the beta decay is due to a contact force of no range.

Then under the influence of the Yukawa meson theory the contact force of the Fermi theory became a force of short range in the developed electroweak theory (1968), though it started with forces of long range carried by hypothetical massless particles like the massless “gravitons” in the so-called Standard Model and the massless “virtual photons” of the wrong theory of Quantum electrodynamics.

In general, despite the successful well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere of forces acting at a distance confirmed accurately by the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement, and my discovery of the nuclear structure based on the well-established electromagnetic laws of forces acting at a distance, the Standard Model describes the wrong “strong and weak forces” assumed to be carried by unobservable gluons and the discovered W and Z particles at CERN. (See my Confusing CERN results and ideas )

Under this confusion I revived the natural laws which solve all the phenomena from the Newtonian mechanics to atomic and nuclear physics. Especially I revealed that the laws of Newton along with the laws of Coulomb and Ampere involving forces acting at a distance invalidate Einstein’s special relativity because the Kaufmann experiment which led to the development of the invalid Lorentz transformation and to the wrong special relativity is interpreted accurately by the application of the well-established laws. Also the observations of the bending of light near the sun predicted by Newton and the Advanced of the perihelion of Mercury which led to the development of the invalid general relativity, in fact, are interpreted accurately by the applications of Newton’s laws. Moreover the experiments of the gravitational red shift are interpreted by applying Newton’s second law, while the basic length contraction and the time dilation are interpreted by applying Newton’s third law of instantaneous simultaneity.

Newton’s contributions to science may be grouped under three main heads: the enunciation of the fundamental laws and hence the proof of the empirical laws of planetary motion and other fundamental astronomical matters; the discovery of the nature of white light and the matters of the first importance springing from this; and the discovery of the infinitesimal calculus. The empirical laws of the motions of planets had been enunciated by Kepler, but it was supposed before Newton’s attack on the problem that these motions were governed by such things as mysterious vortices. Newton’s * Principia* the most celebrated work of science also contains the foundations of mathematical physics, treating for example, wave motion for the first time. In general it may be said that he established the power and the universality of the methods of quantitative science.

Nevertheless under the influence of Einstein’s wrong relativity today physicist believe that Newton’s laws are not the well-established laws of nature. Instead it is believed incorrectly that they have a limited application under the assumed “universal law” of Einstein’s mistakes in his relativity. For example in the “Inertial mass-WIKIPEDIA” one reads: “Later on, we will see how our classical definition of mass must be altered if we take into considerations the theory of special relativity, which is more accurate than classical mechanics.” Also in the “ Action at a distance-WIKIPEDIA” one reads: “This problem has been resolved by Einstein’s theory of general relativity in which gravitational interaction is mediated by deformation of space-time geometry. Matter warps the geometry of space-time and these effects are as with electric and magnetic fields propagated at the speed of light”. In fact, after a careful analysis of atomic and nucler experiments we revealed that under the experiment of French and Tessman who showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields Einstein’s false general relativity of fallacious gravitational fields invalidates his wrong special relativity, because Einstein himself introduced also the constant inertial mass discovered by Newton. Following this confusion the WIKIPEDIA emphasizes that Einstein in his general relativity applied Newton’s the constant inertial mass which is inconsistent with the relativistic mass of his special relativity.

**INTERPRETATION OF THE BENDING OF LIGHT BY THE APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON’S LAWS**

Newton in his * Principia''* begins with a set of definitions: mass, M, momentum, Mu, inertia mass, M

_{o}, force, F, centripetal force. What is more important is that Newton clearly established the modern distinction between mass and weight – the former being an inherent property of a body , whereas the latter depends on the acceleration due to gravity at a particular location. Then, Newton formulated his three laws of motion under absolute space and time. No one dreamed of disputing this definition until Mach (1883) complained that absolute time is “an idle metaphysical conception.” Einstein reported that he was deeply influenced by reading Mach’s book, though Newton in his “bucket argument” had proved that by experiment the rotation is a kind of absolute motion. Nevertheless Mach speculated that the same observation would be made if the bucket of water were kept still and the fallacious “fixed stars” were set in rotation with respect to the bucket. (See RELATIVITY by L. Kaliambos). Such a fallacious idea led to Einstein’s “ether structure” while the Faraday concept that the space is responsible for electromagnetic interactions led to the strange “curvature of space time”. In fact, the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere explain accurately not only the interaction of photon with matter under a basic length contraction and a time dilation but also interpret the nuclear structure since protons and neutrons have extra charged quarks which interact electromagnetically at a distance.

For understanding the origin of the concept of force in a conserved mechanical energy of a system subject to conservative forces with a constant inertial mass, M_{o, }one can read Newton’s first law of inertia, which leads to the formula

F = M_{o}(du/dt)

Then in Newton’s own formulation of the second law he states that the force acting on a body is equal to the rate of change of its momentum . That is

F = dp/dt = d(Mu)/dt

This formula of Newton is a simple generalization arising naturally from observations of collisions in which there are contact forces of short time. Note that though such forces cannot be transmitted to an observer, in fact, they are due to electromagnetic forces between molecules, atoms, and nucleons acting at a distance. ( SeeInvalidity of special relativity ). Also for the continuously acting at a distance gravity it was far more convenient to define force differently by using the constant inertial mass M_{o} and Galileo’s acceleration α. That is

F = M_{o}α. or F = M_{o} (du/dt)

It is this version of Newton’s second law formalized by Euler in 1750, that was eventually adopted in Newtonian mechanics. Note that Einstein in his special relativity rejected the constant inertial mass M_{o} which is responsible for the conservation law of mechanical energy according to which a potential energy turns into a kinetic one under the constant inertial mass M_{o}, when the isolated system is only subject to conservative forces. It is well-known that

Fds = dW = M_{o }udu or FΔs = Δw = M_{o}u^{2}/2

Instead, Einstein suggested the fallacious rest mass M_{o} which could increase during the transformation of the potential energy into the kinetic one. So he violated this conservation law by suggesting incorrectly that Newton’s laws under his invalid relativity should be modified. Ironically Einstein in his invalid general relativity applied the constant inertial mass M_{o} of Newtonian mechanics which invalidates his relativistic mass of his special relativity.

On the other hand the observation of the bending of light not only invalidates his second postulation of special relativity but also it led to the wrong hypothesis that it is due to a fallacious “curvature of space-time”. In fact, the bending of light was predicted by Newton and confirmed by Soldner in 1801.

On this basis I revealed that when a photon moves in perpendicular direction to gravity its mass behaves like the inertial mass M_{o} of Galileo’s projectile according to which the gravity cannot affect the horizontal velocity and produces only an acceleration along the direction of gravity. Galileo’s experiments and observations of projectile motion welded together the laws of uniformly accelerated motion, including free fall and the principle of superposition of velocities to produce one conceptual scheme, one over-all method of attacking, predicting, and interpreting every conceivable problem involving bodies of constant inertial mass under the influence of a force. In the same way when a photon with a constant inertial mass m_{o }moves along the perpendicular direction to the gravity it behaves like a projectile in which the observed motion is the result of two separate motions, combined and followed simultaneously by the projectile, the one component of motion being an unchanging horizontal velocity, the other component being a vertical acceleration under a local absolute space and time. So photons obeying the laws of free fall accelerate along the direction of gravity, while the constant velocity c is not changing. Furthermore, these two components do not impede or interfere with each other. That is, the velocity c remains the same, while the acceleration is given by applying Euler’s formula as

F = m_{o}(du/dt)

Here the photon has a constant inertial mass m_{o} = hν/c^{2 } at a given frequency ν.

So the resultant at any moment is the simple effect of a superposition of the two individual components which lead to a curved trajectory.

It is unfortunate that Einstein in his wrong general relativity proposed a fallacious “curvature of space time” which might be thought responsible for the bending of light, though Newton predicted the bending of light under his universal law of gravity.

To conclude, in all mechanical energies Newton’s first law which led to the formulation of the Euler formula applies not only on bodies with constant inertial mass but also on photons when they move in perpendicular direction to the gravitational force F.

**INTERPRETATION OF MERCURY’S PRECESSION BY APPLYING NEWTON’S UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITY**

In Newtonian orbits of planets in the solar system the observed fact that the orbit of the planet Mercury slowly rotates around the sun, so that the position of closest approach to the sun (perihelion) gradually shifts, had been a long-standing puzzle in mechanics. Einstein in his wrong general relativity believed that the explanation depends on the false idea that energy is associated with mass. In other words he believed incorrectly that as a planet gets close to the sun, it experiences a gravitational force greater than would be expected from Newton’s law of universal gravitation because the effective mass of the sun would be greater.

In fact, the mass of the sun is the same but we may observe a deformation of sun’s spherical shape which increases the gravity when the planet is closer to the sun. Under a detailed knowledge of Newton’s gravity it was found that it is due to the Newtonian Sun-tide. When mercury is very close to the sun, the sun-tide increases the gravity than that predicted by the spherical shapes. (For a detailed analysis see in Google “General relativity or Newtonian Tidal Effect? ”

**THE TRIUMPH OF NEWTON’S FUNDAMENTAL ACTION AT A DISTANCE WITH INSTANEOUS SIMULTANEITY**

It is well-known that the experiment of Michelson and Morley supported Newton’s “I FAIN NO HYPOTHESIS” because in the absence of the false Cartesian ether the force should act at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity (Newton’s third law) . Nevertheless Einstein not only rejected Newton’s third law but also tried to replace Newton’s universal gravitational force acting at a distance by fallacious gravitational waves moving in his incorrect “ether structure” or in his strange “curvature of spacetime”. According to these false ideas gravitation is propagated with the speed of light. However it is fortunate that the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement confirmed accurately the fundamental action at a distance and since it invalidated Einstein’s ideas, Einstein called it “Spooky action at a distance.” On the other hand using the earth-sun system as an example, by assuming that gravity is propagated at the speed of light, one could see that the decrease in the earth’s orbital period would be 15 seconds per year with a corresponding decrease in its mean distance from the sun of 30 miles per year. However these large changes are not supported by observations.

Finally the experiment of French and Tessman showing the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields led me to revive the well-established laws involving forces acting at a distance which led to the discovery that nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. Nevertheless in the “Newton’s laws of Motion-WIKIPEDIA” and especially in chapter “Importance and Validity” one reads the following confusing words: “In modern physics, action at a distance has been completely eliminated, except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement”.

**INTERPRETATION OF GRAVITATIONAL RED SHIFT UNDER A BASIC LENGTH CONTRACTION AND A TIME DILATION DEDUCED FROM NEWTON’S LAWS**

In my model of dipolic photons (1993) I showed that photons behave like moving dipoles. Thus a photon operates at the velocity c with equal electric and magnetic forces acting at the same time. That is, a photon cannot move faster than c because the greater repulsive magnetic force than the electric attraction will violate Newton’s third law of equal forces. So under the constant velocity c of photons I apply Newton’s formula

F = dp/dt of his second law as

F = dp/dt = c(dm/dt)

This formula in terms of energy can be written

Fds = dw = (cdm/dt)ds = dmc^{2} = hdν.

Note that Einstein in his false general relativity tried to explain the gravitational red shift by using the Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics because the relativistic one leads to complications. In our accurate interpretation by using Newton’s second law the force affects not the velocity but the mass under a basic length contraction and a time dilation. Here I notice that according to Newton’s third law of instantaneous simultaneity the photon cannot accelerate along the c direction, because the increase of the magnetic force will violate the third law of Newton. So the acceleration during this gravitational interaction must approach to zero under a length contraction and a time dilation.

To conclude, for all photons when interact with gravitational forces parallel to c one must apply Newton’s formula of his second law according to which the photon mass changes under a length contraction and a time dilation. Since dm = hdν/c^{2}_{ }one can explain the experiments of the gravitational shift.

**INTERPRETATION OF THE KAUFMANN EXPERIMENT BY APPLYING NEWTON’S SECOND AND THIRD LAW**

According to our discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER TRANSFORMATION when photons interact with electrons the photons are absorbed to give both their energy hν and mass m under a basic length contraction and a time dilation as

hν/m = ΔW/ΔΜ = c^{2}

Here the charges of a photon interact with the charge (-e) of the electron in terms of E_{y} and B_{z} as

E_{y}(-e) dy = dW and B_{z}(-e)(dy/dt) = F_{m} or B_{Z}(-e)dy = F_{m} dt = dp = dmc

Since E_{y}/B_{z } = c we get dW/dp = c or dW/dm = c^{2}

However the magnetic force F_{m }must appear after the electric one because of the velocity dy/dt produced by the electric force Ey(-e). Since this situation must violate Newton’s third law the velocity dy/dt should approach to zero under a basic length contraction and a time dilation.

It is indeed unfortunate that Einstein for the explanation of the photoelectric effect under the influence of wrong Maxwell’s fields suggested that photons are only quanta of energy. Under this false idea he formulated his incomplete formula E = mc^{2} with basic errors which did much to retard the progress of physics. Note that this incomplete and incorrect formula violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass.

For example in the Bohr model the energy hν of the generated photon is due not to the mass defect but to the energy Δw of the charge-charge interaction of 13.6 eV which turns into the energy hν of the generation of photon, while the mass defect ΔΜ of the electron during the binding energy turns into the mass m of the photon. This situation invalidates dramatically the special relativity according to which the orbiting electron around the nucleus should have greater mass. In the opposite reaction during the absorption of the photon energy both the mass M and the velocity u of an electron are changed under the application of Newton’s formula of his second law as

Fds = dW = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = d(Mu)u = (Mdu + udM)u = dMc^{2}

Here Newton’s formula

F = dp/dt = d(Mu)/dt

says that the force changes not only the velocity u of the particle but also its mass M. So one will explain the result of the Kaufmann experiment given by

M^{2}^{ }/ M_{o}^{2 }^{ }= c^{2}/ (c^{2}- u^{2})

Here M_{o} is the constant inertial mass before the interaction and M is the increasing mass during the interaction. Whereas according to Einstein’s errors the constant inertial mass was replaced by the false rest mass. Also Einstein believed incorrectly that when an observer moves with an electron he will measure greater mass of the stationary objects in the laboratory. In fact, in the Kaufmann experiment the electron absorbs a non mechanical energy on our earth which is due to the photons of sun. In other words under the photosynthesis the energy of the sun’s rays is the source of all non mechanical energies on our earth.

Now differentiating the above equation we get

M^{2}c^{2} = M^{2}u^{2 }^{ } or 2MdMc^{2} = 2MdM u^{2} + 2udu M^{2 }Or dMc^{2} = ( Mdu + udM )u

Taking into account that theories cannot replace the natural laws one concludes that the Kaufmann experiment cannot be explained by the incorrect theories of Lorentz and Einstein which led to the crisis of physics (under the violation of the two conservation laws of mass and energy) but by the well-established laws of Newton. In the same way the three fundamental interactions of electric, magnetic, and gravitational forces acting at a distance cannot be replaced by the theories which complicated the interactions and then in vain tried to unify the complications.

In other words in our universe the energy cannot turn into mass and all forces like contact forces and the so-called weak and strong interactions are due to the fundamental acting at a distance gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces of the well-established laws of Newton Coulomb and Ampere. It is fortunate that the Bohr model and the Schrodinger equations are based on the well-established laws.