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Lefteris Kaliambos (Natural Philosopher)

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January 5 ,  2018

In the absence of a detailed knowledge about the history of physics and under the influence of the invalid relativity (experiments reject relativity) today many physicists continue to believe that the quantum gravitational waves discovered by LIGO (2016) are associated with Einstein’s false theory of general relativity. (Contradicting relativity theories). In fact LIGO discovered the quantum gravitational waves (SPACETIME RIPPLES OF LAWS) which cannot be related to Einstein's wrong gravitational waves. This photo is from the interview I gave to the author of the Spiritual Thessaly. Mrs Dimitra Bardani. with the title " Wrong gravitational waves of astronomers at Harvard and quantum gravitational waves discovered by the LIGO team".   

Nevertheless today many physicists continue to belive that the LIGO team discovered Einstein's wrong gravitational waves. For example in the “Gravitational wave-WIKIPEDIA” we read :“By Albert Einstein on the basis of his general theory of relativity, gravitational waves transport energy as gravitational radiation, a form of radiant energy similar to electromagnetic radiation. Newton's law of universal gravitation, part of classical mechanics, does not provide for their existence, since that law is predicated on the assumption that physical interactions propagate at infinite speed—showing one of the ways the methods of classical physics are unable to explain phenomena associated with relativity.”  

Moreover, since Einstein in 1905 in his false postulation of special relativity violated Newton’s third law of instantaneous action and reaction in “MODERN PHYSICS” (page 48)  we read: “The general theory of relativity does for gravity what Maxwell’s theory achieved for electricity. The gravitational force is mediated by the gravitational field, as the electromagnetic force is mediated by the electromagnetic field.” 

In fact, after the experiment of the two American physicists French and Tessman (1963) who showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s self propagating  fields and after my paper of dipolic photons presented at the international conference “ Frontiers of fundamental physics” (1993) , the gravitational waves of the quantum physics are due not to the invalid fields, which violate Newton’s third law, (experiments reject fields), but  to the application of Newton’s laws, since they are characterized by the spacetime ripples of laws, based on Newton’s third law of instantaneous action and reaction.(Discovery of length contraction).

Historically, Descartes in 1644 believed that the gravitational force is not the result of an instantaneous interaction but it is transformed through the fallacious Aristotelian ether. So in his paper “Principles of philosophy” he introduced the wrong gravitational waves accepted later by Einstein in the general theory of relativity (1915), although Newton in 1687 rejected them after the discovery of his third law of motion.

Note that Maxwell in his theory of fields (1865) abandoned the gravitational properties of the Newtonian particles of light (confirmed by Soldner in 1801) and introduced not only the invalid Faraday fields (1831) but also the fallacious ether of Descartes. In the “Introduction to concepts and theories in physical science” (page 65) we read: “Even after the triumph of Newtonian physics, many scientists still shared Descartes’ preference for avoiding the concept of force (action at a distance) and for postulating instead that space is filled with pieces of matter that can interact when they touch. What appear in Newton’s theory to be long -range forces acting across empty space, such as gravity, would on Descartes’ view be explained by the propagation of impulses through an invisible ethereal matter that is imagined to fill the intervening space.”      

Nevertheless after the invalid Maxwell’s fields (invalid Maxwell’s equations)  Poincare in 1905 suggested that, in analogy to an accelerating electrical charge producing electromagnetic waves, accelerated masses should produce gravitational waves.

In fact, in 1907 Planck based on Einstein’s equation E = mc2 wrote that the photon because of its energy E = hν does have  mass m = hν/c2 providing not only electromagnetic properties discovered by Faraday (1845) but also gravitational properties predicted by Newton (1704).  Moreover in the quantum physics of non conservative forces Bohr in 1913 discovered that the electric energy of the electron-proton interaction Δw = 13.6 eV  turns to the energy hν = 13.6 eV of the emitting photon in accordance with the conservation law of energy, which rejects Einstein’s hypothesis (1905) that energy turns to mass.(Invalid mass-energy conservation). That is, Δw = hν. (Nobel prize 1922).

In the same way the gravitational energy Δw of the two interacting black holes of the LIGO discovery turns to energy hν of the generated photons. Note that according to LIGO discovery a black hole of mass equal to the mass of 36 suns interacts with another black hole of mass equal to the mass of 29 suns. In such a gravitational interaction of the quantum physics it was observed a mass defect Δm which is equal to the three suns. Therefore the new black hole of mass M which is equal to the mass of 63 suns should emit a very high energy hν of photons.  

However after my paper of 1993 a photon of mass m = hν/c2 interacts with the mass M of the new black hole. Therefore when the velocity c of the photon is perpendicular to the gravitational force F we may apply Newton’s constant inertial mass mo of the Newtonian Mechanics, because the gravitational force cannot affect the constant velocity c, in accordance with Galileo’s experiments with initial horizontal motion. In this case of conservative forces since a photon accelerates along the direction of the gravitational force we may apply Newton’s second law for the systems of conservative forces given by

F = mo(dυ/dt)

This is the bending of light predicted by Newton and confirmed by Soldner.

But when the velocity c is parallel to the gravitational force a photon cannot accelerate along the direction of the gravitational force, because of its constant velocity c. In this case of non conservative forces under the application of Newton’s second law F = dp/dt  we observe an increase of the photon mass. That is

F = dp/dt = cdm/dt  Or Fds = dW = hdν = (cdm/dt)ds = dmc2           

So in this simple case of emission of photons from the very large new black hole of mass M equal to the mass of 63 suns, the velocity c is antiparallel to the gravitational force and we should observe not only a decrease of the photon mass but also a decrease of the photon energy which could become zero in this black hole of very strong gravitational force. Under this condition and since the systems of two black holes lose gravitational energy Δw, the energy hν of photons under the conservation law of energy turns to energy ΔE of gravitational waves. In other words under the conservation law of energy we may write the two following equations as

Δw = hν  and hν = ΔΕ

Here the first equation is similar to the equation of the Bohr model (1913), while the second equation is similar to the first equation of Einstein, who in 1905 tried to explaine the photoelectric effect by using only the absorption of the photon energy hν. (Nobel prize 1921).  

In fact, after my discovery of the Photon-Μatter Ιnteraction given by

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2 

the absorption of a photon by an electron contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ under a  length contraction and a time dilation. (Correct explanation of photoelectric effect). Under this condition of the quantum physics we conclude that the quantum gravitational wave of energy ΔΕ is accompanied by a mass ΔM because in the quantum physics energy without mass cannot exist. In the same way according to the discovery of LIGO the gravitational energy Δw of the two black holes is accompanied by the mass defect Δm = mass of three suns.

Since the mass of our sun is about 2x1030 Kg and the mass of one electron is equal to 0.911/1030 Kg we may write the mass defect (three suns) of the two black holes as

Mass defect of the three suns is equal to Δm = mass of 6.586x1060 electrons.  

On the other hand today it is well-known that in the electron-positron interaction the electromagnetic energy of the electron-positron interaction, as in the Bohr model, turns to the energy hν = 1.022 MeV of the two photons. Therefore the mass defect of the electron-positron interaction is equal to the mass of two electrons, which turns to mass of the two photons. Under this condition the gravitational energy Δw of the two interacting black holes corresponding to the mass defect of the three suns is

Δw = 6.586x0.511x1060 = 3.365x1060 MeV   

Since here the photons disappear in favor of gravitational waves we may apply my discovery of the law of energy and mass given by

Δw/Δm = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2 

This law which was derived under the application of the two conservation laws of energy and mass invalidates Einstein’s incomplete equation E = mc2 because energy does not turn to mass. The same law is applied also when a free unstable neutron (n) with a mass of 1838.68 electrons changes to a stable proton (p) with a mass of 1836.15 electrons. In this case the mass defect n-p = Δm = mass of 2.53 electrons becomes the mass ΔΜ = mass of 2.53 electrons of the emitting electron found in the experiment of Kaufmann (1901). Especially after my discovery of the new structure of protons and neutrons

Neutron (n) = [92(dud + 4u + 8d] = 288 quarks  

Proton (p)  = [93(dud) + 5d + 4u] = 288 quarks

in the beta decay the unstable quark triad (ddd) of the neutron changes to the stable quark triad (dud) of proton. That is, we may write

[(ddd)-(dud)] /(d-u) = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2  

Here ddd-dud is the released electromagnetic energy Δw = 1.293 MeV while d-u is the mass defect Δm = mass of 2.53 electrons, because d = mass of 7.23 electrons and u = mass of 4.7 electrons. (Up and down quarks).

Note that in the absence of a knowledge about the quarks and the masses of neutron and proton  Lorentz in 1904 tried to interpret the Kaufmann experiment by assuming that the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ  is due to a relative motion of the electron with respect to the Maxwellian ether although the Michelson experiment (1887) rejected the ether. It is of interest to note that Einstein in 1905 in his invalid special relativity applied the same math of Lorentz but he replaced the ether with an observer. However in the general relativity Einstein reintroduced the ether. Under such an inconsistency when Michelson and Einstein met briefly in 1931, Michelson remarked that he regretted that his experiment might have been responsible for giving birth to such a monster referring to the theory of special relativity.(Thomson and Michelson reject Einstein).

It is indeed fortunate that after the experiments of the quantum entanglement which confirm Newton’s third law of action and instantaneous reaction and after the important experiment of the two American physicists French and Tessman (1963), who showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s self propagating fields, in 1993 M. Barone and F Selleri organized the international conference, where I presented my paper of dipolic photons invalidating both fields and relativity. Today it is well-known that Einstein in a paper of 1916 hypothesized that in analogy to Maxwell’s self propagating fields, in nature should exist also gravitational fields propagated at the speed of light. However after the experiments of the quantum entanglement, in 1936 Einstein rejected his gravitational waves, and in his book of 1938 he did not write about them. Nevertheless under the influence of relativity today many physicists continue to apply Einstein’s incomplete equation E = mc2, because they believe incorrectly that the energy ΔΕ of the gravitational waves is due to the invalid conversion of the mass of three suns to the energy of gravitational waves. In other words they continue to violate not only the two basic laws of energy and mass but also the gravitational energy of Newton’s laws.