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Lefteris Kaliambos (Natural Philosopher)

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February 19 , 2016

After the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935) which confirmed the fundamental action at a distance of Newton’s third law, Einstein (1936) rejected his idea of gravitational waves (1916) but he continued to believe in the hypothesis of space time ripples which may exist after my discovery of the quantum length contraction and the quantum time dilation.(Discovery of length contraction). It occurs when the velocity c of a photon with mass m = hν/c2 is parallel to the gravitational force acting at a distance, while all experiments od atomic and nuclear physics reject Einstein (Experiments reject relativity) . According to Newton’s second law the mass of the photon increases under a length contraction and a time dilation. Under this condition the physicists M. Barone and F. Selleri organized the international conference "Frontiers of fundamental physics" (1993 where I presented my discovery of dipolic photon with my sketches for Newton and for Einstein in order to show that in the Quantum Physics of non conservative forces Einstein’s famous equation E = mc2, was derived from the well-established Newton’s second law F = d(Mυ)/dt, containing the variable mass M.

PHOTONS MOVING IN PERPENDICULAR DIRECTION TO GRAVITY PROVIDE GRAVITATIONAL PROPERTIES LIKE ALL BODIES OF CONSTANT INERTIAL MASS

Historically, the most famous prediction of gravitational properties of light is the bending of light by a massive star. This effect has an intriguing history which begins with Newton, who envisioned a light ray as a narrow moving beam of extremely tiny particles  that travel in straight trajectories through empty space. Now according to his law of gravitational attraction the acceleration of gravity experienced by a body at some point in vacuum should be the same regardless of its mass. Therefore any particle, however light, should experience this acceleration due to gravitational forces acting at a distance in accordance with Newton’s third law.

Note that later Einstein in his invalid general relativity(1916)  tried to modify the well established third law of Newton confirmed by the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement. ( See my “Quantum Entanglement rejects Einstein”) . Here we write Newton’s first “Query” in Opticks: Do not Bodies act upon Light at a distance and by their action bend its rays and is not this action strongest at the least distance?   In1801 just a few years before the experiments of Young and Fresnel, who abandoned the corpuscular theory of light in favor of wrong fields  moving through a fallacious ether, a German mathematician, Johann Georg von Soldner computed the trajectory of a particle of light that passes close to the periphery of the sun. To perform this calculation one must know only the sun’s mass , the universal gravitational constant, and the speed of light. The last was known to be close to 3×108 m/s from measurements by Brandley . The missing data were the universal gravitational constant G and the sun’s mass. When in 1798, Cavendish measured G, Soldner was able to answer Newton’s query.  

  It is indeed unfortunate that Einstein in 1911, who was quite aware of Newton’s predictions tried to interpret the bending of light by introducing the strange hypothesis of the curvature of vacuum. So under his massless quanta of fields Einstein discarded the Euclidian geometry of space and introduced a new hypothesis of space-time geometry which should be dependent of other invalid hypotheses  like the wrong gravitational fields and the  wrong gravitational waves. In other words the simple action at a distance confirmed by the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement became a strange action of four-dimensional space-time.             

In fact, I discovered that in case in which the light velocity c is perpendicular to the gravitational force Fg  the photon mass mo behaves like the constant inertial mass of a body. In this case the motion of the photon follows the projectile motion of Galileo. This is the result of two separate motions, combined and followed simultaneously by the particle, the one component of motion (say c) being an unchanging , unaccelerated horizontal translation, the other component being a vertical component, accelerating motion obeying the laws of free fall. (See my “Newton and Galileo reject Einstein”). Under this condition we write

Fg = mo(dv/dt) or FgΔs = mov2/2       

LENGTH CONTRACTION AND TIME DILATION OF LAWS

Today many physicists influenced by Einstein's relativity believe that the length contraction of Einstein changed our notions of simultaneity in contrast to the third law of Newton. Although the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions solved all the phenomena of atomic physics, today also physicists believe to the wrong concept of four dimensional spacetime. For example in the "Length contraction-WIKIPEDIA" one reads the following wrong ideas:

"Eventually, Albert Einstein (1905) was the first to completely remove the ad hoc character from the contraction hypothesis, by demonstrating that this contraction did not require motion through a supposed aether, but could be explained using special relativity, which changed our notions of space, time, and simultaneity.” 

In fact, in the correct Compton effect the absorption of photon contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase to the electron mass ΔΜ under a length contraction and a time dilation. Moreover when the velocity c of a photon is parallel to Fg the application of Newton’s  laws led to my discovery of the increase of the photon mass under the same length contraction and  time dilation. These facts invalidate Einstein’s ideas of relativity based on wrong Maxwell’s fields (1865) moving through a fallacious ether.  In 1887 the two American physicists Michelson and Morley showed experimentally that the Maxwellian ether cannot exist.  Nevertheless FitzGerald (1889) and Lorentz (1892) influenced by wrong Maxwell’s fields introduced the first hypothesis of length contraction by assuming that the ether does exist.  Especially Michelson used the well known interferometer with a length L along the direction of light speed c and another length Lo = L along the perpendicular direction. Let us assume that the earth moves with a velocity u relative to the hypothetical ether. Therefore the total time T required for the light to travel and return along the length L should be given by   

T = L/(c-u) + L/(c-u) = 2Lc/(c2-u2)

Whereas the total time To required for the light to travel and return along the length Lo should be given by

To = 2Lo/(c2-u2)0.5

Thus T/To = c/ (c2 –u2)0.5

Since L = Lo and the experiment showed that T/T= 1 they proved that u = 0 .

In other words they rejected the Maxwellian ether in favor of Newton’s particles of light confirmed by Soldner in 1801.

Nevertheless, Lorentz in 1904 for the explanation of the Kaufmann experiment (1901) influenced by the excellent math of the invalid Maxwell’s equations tried to explain the null result of the Michelson experiment  by assuming that the earth does move relative to the ether. So the linear dimension of an object would contract along the line of relative motion. That is, the length L of the interferometer should be contracted with respect to the Lo during the motion through the hypothetical ether. Thus writing

2Lc/(c2-u2) = 2Lo/(c2-u2)0.5 he suggested that L = Lo(c2-u2)0.5/c

This is the hypothetical length contraction of Lorenz when an object moves with respect to the fallacious Maxwellian ether.

Albert Einstein (1905) using the same math of Lorentz complicated more the problem, because in his invalid special relativity replaced the fallacious ether by a randomly moving observer .

Under such complications Einstein later (1915) in his invalid general relativity reintroduced the ether and suggested also an invalid curvature of space.

To avoid such confusing and wrong theories of Maxwell and of Einstein I presented at the international conference of 1993 my paper “Impact of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles”. In that paper I showed that laws and experiments invalidate fields and relativity under my discovery of dipole nature of photon  in which the mass with opposite charges led to my discovery of  the Photon-Matter Interaction

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2

According to this discovery the absorption of photons in the correct explanation of photoelectric effect under a quantum length contraction and a quantum time dilation contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ .Note that this situation cannot be related with Einstein's ideas of space and time based on the invalid Lorentz transformations. For example when the opposite charges of such a photon interact with an electron we get  dw/dm = c2 by using the interaction in terms of the vectors Ey and Bz which operate at the same time and lead to the photon-matter interaction as:

Ey (-e) dy = dw 

and  Bz(-e)dy = Fm dt = dp = cdm.

Since Ey/Bz = c we get dw/dm = c2 = hν/m

Note that such a result under the application of Newton’s laws led to my discovery of the length contraction and time dilation.  In this case of quantum physics which differs from the Newtonian mechanics we see that under a velocity  dy/dy the magnetic force Fm should  occur after the electric force Fe =  Ey(-e) which violates Newton’s third law. Nevertheless this Photon -Matter Interaction does occur when the velocity dy/dt approaches to zero under a length contraction and a time dilation. In the Newtonian mechanics the idea of the same pair of events seeming simultaneous of the third law to different observers in relative motion is taking for granted.   

But Einstein in his invalid relativity suggested that it is an unwarranted idea. Particularly according to Einstein when a lightning strikes the two ends of a moving train at the same instant the observer on the earth (outside the moving train) sees the events of the two ends of the train at the same time, while an observer on the moving train  would not see the two events at the same time. Thus, he concluded incorrectly that simultaneity of Newton’s third law is not invariant but depends on the reference frame.    

Under such fallacious ideas I examined carefully the Kaufmann experiment and I discovered that according to the Photon-Matter Interaction the increase of the electron mass under a length contraction and a time dilation is due to the absorption of both energy and mass.   

Indeed, in the Kaufamnn experiment (1901) under the same length contraction and a time dilation  the absorption of an energy by an electron contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the variation of the electron mass starting from the inertial mass Mo (before the absorption). Here we do not use the wrong rest mass because it led to complications. Instead we use Newton’s inertial mass Mo (before the absorption) which is always constant in a mechanical conservative system, where the sum of the  kinetic and potential energy is constant, as in gravity. Since the relativistic mass leads also to complications, after the absorption we use a variable mass M in accordance with the following equation

M2/Mo2 = c2/(c2-u2)

Indeed, the differentiation of this equation under the application of Newton’s second law leads to my discovery of the Photon-Matter interaction as

M2c2 = M2u2

Or  2MdMc2 = 2MdM u2 + 2uduM2

Or  dMc2 = (dMu + udM)u = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = (dp/dt)ds  =  dW

This result deduced from the application of Newton’s second law invalidates dramatically the theory of special relativity. ( See my “Newton invalidates Einstein”). 

SPACE TIME RIPPLES OF LAWS DUE TO GRAVITY

Surprisingly we see that the gravitational force Fdue to the mass m of photons interacting with a mass M of a massive star is able to give the same result dw/dm = c2 which means that, under the quantum physics, gravity and electromagnetism are unified correctly.

This is the well-known gravitational blue shift when a photon moves toward a massive star. That is, because of the variable photon mass, which differs fundamentally from the constant inertial mass of particles, one observes a blue shift energy hδν.

Note that Einstein in his general relativity used incorrectly his relativistic accelerations of particles which lead to complications, because he believed that in nature there is a universal principle of relativity giving always his relativistic accelerations. So, under such wrong axioms he thought that the fundamental Newtonian accelerations in gravity are a limited case of his conclusions.

In fact, we can see just the opposite situation, because applications of Newton’s laws give the general correct results of both the kinetic energy of particles and the gravitational frequency shift of photons as:

Fgds = dw = ( dp/dt) ds = [d(mu)/dt]ds = [m(du/dt) +u(dm/dt)]ds

In Newton's own formulation of the second law, he states that the force acting on a body is equal to the change of its momentum F = d(mu)/dt. But it was far more convinient to use the rate of change of motion. It is a very simple version F = m(du/dt) formalized by the Swiss mathematician Euler(1750), because physicists did not know that Newton's particles of light have a variable mass able to give an energy of blue shift similar to the kinetic energy of particles having a constant inertial mass.

For a particle with a constant  inertial mass mo we use the well-known first term, because the gravitational interaction affects the velocity u. This leads to the fundamental formula F= moa = GmM/rwhich covers all accelerations, no matter what is the velocity of the particle. Whereas Einstein’s the so-called relativistic accelerations are due to the limited case. In fact, in quantum dynamcs when the photons are absorbed by the particles they give off their mass to particles under my discovery of the Photon-Matter Interacrion.

Although Einstein's general theory of relativity is invalid  today for many physicists the wrong gravitational waves are assumed to be significant because it is believed they carry information allowing them to look back into the very beginnings of the universe. For example in “Gravitational waves -Wikipedia” one reads: 

“The existence of gravitational waves is a possible consequence of the Lorentz invariance of general relativity since it brings the concept of a finite speed of propagation of the physical interactions with it. By contrast, gravitational waves cannot exist in the Newtonian theory of gravitation, which postulates that physical interactions propagate at infinite speed.”

It is well known that in March 2014, astronomers at Harvard operating the Bicep2 telescope, based near the South Pole, believed they had found gravitational waves, but their results were proven to be inaccurate. (See “Gravitational waves turn to dust after claims of flawed analysis”). Nevertheless, at this point, Einstein's theory for many physicists is expected to take hold, with the pair predicted to succumb to a death spiral sending ripples known as gravitational waves through space-time, the very fabric of the universe.

In 1916 Einstein under his massless quanta of fields in his theory of general relativity  proposed the gravitational waves for the transmission of gravitational forces, because he believed incorrectly that the gravitational force is similar  to the  electromagnetic force  transmitted via the fallacious electromagnetic fields of Maxwell. Moreover in his Principle of Equivalence  starting with the equality of constant inertial mass mo and gravitational mass m (when a body is on the earth of mass M and radius R) Einstein rejects himself. According to Newton’s law of gravitational force acting at a distance we may write

moα = GmM/R2

This means that the constant inertial mass in gravity is equal to the gravitational mass, because Galileo proved that all bodies at a local position fall with the same acceleration α. However Einstein's wrong hypothesis of gravitational waves led to complications, because the constant inertial mass mo in his invalid theory of special relativity (1905) was replaced by the concepts of wrong rest mass mo and invalid relativistic mass m.

A basic hypothesis of general relativity is that time intervals appear to be dilated ( clocks are seen to turn more slowly) when we look into regions of space in which there are strong electromagnetic forces due to massive stars. Einstein under his massless quanta of fields interpreted incorrectly the so-called gravitational shift. For example under his massless quanta of fields he used the Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics as

δν/ν = υ/c

Whereas in 1938 in his book "The evolution of Physics" (page 208) he wrote: "Radiation travelling through space and emmited from the sun contains energy and therefore has mass". That is, Einstein much more later understood that photon has a mass. Under this condition we may write

Fgds = dW= hdν = c(dm/dt)ds = dmc2

Note that during the increase of the mass the gravitational acceleration approaches to zero  under a length contraction and time dilation. When radiation is emitted by a massive star the result is an observed shift of spectral-line frequencies  toward the red (law-frequency) end of the spectrum. This gravitational “red shift” of light that is coming to us from massive stars was observed in the 1920s by astronomers. The gravitational red shift is also in another phenomenon that has aroused interest among astrophysicists: the “gravitational collapse” of extremely massive stars. As the star collapsed, its intense gravitational force would impose greater and greater red shift on all emitted radiation , until finally the frequency tends to zero and no radiation could escape at all; hence the star could no longer be seen. On the other hand  all radiation (and matter) approaching the vicinity of the star would be sucked into it by strong gravitational forces and could not escape. Such a star would appear to us as a “black hole”.

Recently (February 11, 2016) researchers of LIGO announced that they have detected ripples in the fabric of space. The news was announced by members of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), a 15-nation, 900-scientist, $1 billion experiment that has searched for signs of the phenomenon since 2002.

"Finally these waves have been detected on Earth with an unbelievably sensitive experiment. And, surprisingly, the source of the waves is a system of two black holes in orbit around each other, that spiral inward and smash together," Cornell physics and astrophysics professor Saul Teukolsky confirmed in a statement emailed to Tech Insider. The ripples the researchers detected were created by two black holes colliding and merging to form a single black hole 1.3 billion years ago. When the two black holes merged, they released the energy of three suns. Marka said. "We don't actually know what happens around a black hole. We don't know what happens when a black hole meets another black hole. We don't know what happens when a black hole eats something."

Dense objects that move really, really fast can radically distort spacetime, some with enough energy to trigger ripples like a speedboat accelerating across a placid lake.This description of spacetime ripples was pure conjecture, though, until 1974. That's when astronomers Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor stumbled upon the deep-space equivalent of two speedboats spiraling into each other.

Both objects were neutron stars - ultra-dense dead stars that formed during a supernova. (The star collapses but is not big enough to form a black hole). One of the neutron stars was spinning fast enough to emit radio pulses as a pulsar, which is how they found the star system to begin with. Hulse and Taylor soon discovered the neutron stars were rapidly orbiting one another.

Surprisingly, over the years they noticed the pulsar's orbit was hastening, bit by bit, and deduced the stars would spiral into each other and collide in about 300 million years. The astronomers won a 1993 Nobel Prize for their groundbreaking discovery of the bizarre object, now called the Hulse-Taylor Pulsar, and its role in indirectly showing spacetime ripples exist. Still, they did not actually detect the spacetime ripples themselves. But today LIGO Laboratory detectors used a clever trick to dick up on these ripples. LIGO is an experiment that uses two L-shaped detectors: One is in Lousiana, and another is located about 3000 Km away in Washington state.

Each arm of the L extends for 2.5 miles. A laser beam is split at the bend in the L and travels down each arm to bounce off several mirrors. The mirrors lengthen and then recombine the laser at a detector. Without a spacetime ripple, the laser beams cancel each other out perfectly, so no light is picked up by the detector.

But when a spacetime ripple hits the detector, sort of like a pool of oil on the surface of a rippling lake, one arm will shrink and the other will stretch. Then, as the wave finishes passing by, the arms will bounce back to normal. This shape-shifting is absolutely imperceptible to the human eye, but it means the laser beams will no longer line up perfectly, and the detector will pick up a flash of light: the long-sought sign of a spacetime ripple. And if the very same disturbance is recorded at both detectors, thousands of miles away, researchers can deduce that it came from space. Makra compared the detectors to a pair of giant ears that can "hear" the spacetime ripples that result from neutron star collisions, black hole mergers, or other catastrophic events in space, like a giant exploding star.