11 March 2019
Historically the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron (1932) along with the invalid relativity (EXPERIMENTS REJECT RELATIVITY) led to the abandonment of the well-established electromagnetic laws, in favour of various contradicting nuclear theories, which could not lead to the nuclear structure. Under this physics crisis and using the charged UP and DOWN quarks , discovered by Gell-Mann and Zweig, I published my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism ” (2003), which led to my discovery of the new structure of protons and neutrons given by
proton = [93(dud) + 5d + 4u ] = 288 quarks = mass of 1836.15 electrons
neutron = [92(dud) + 4u + 8d ] = 288 quarks = mass of 1838.68 electrons
The paper was also presented at a nuclear conference held at NCSR "Demokritos" (2002).
Here one can see the 9 charged quarks in proton and the 12 ones in neutron able to give the charge distributions in nucleons for revealing the strong electromagnetic force for the nuclear binding in the correct nuclear structure by applying the laws of electromagnetism. Note that according to my discovery of the LAW OF ENERGY AND MASS the mass defect in the nuclear structure is due to the photon mass of the emitting dipolic photon presented at the international conference "Frontiers of fundamental physics" (1993) organised by the natural philosophers M. Barone and F. Selleri , who gave me an award including a disc of the atomic philosopher Democritus. Nevertheless today many physicist continue to apply not the well-established laws but the various fallacious nuclear structure models which lead to complications.
In the following diagram I present the structure of four nuclei. The first one is the magic nucleus of He-4. It is a very stable rectangle and belongs to the group of the two-dimensional structures. In this case one observes a radial p-n bond and a very strong axial p-n bond per nucleon, while along the diagonals there exist weak p-p and n-n repulsions because of non oriented spins. Under this condition the He-4 is a very stable nucleus. Then you can see the unstable Be-8. Actually Be-8 is a collection of two very stable He-4 packed together for making the first parallelepiped with three p-n bonds per nucleon. However in the two squares of the parallelepiped the identical nucleons appear with parallel spins with very strong electric and magnetic repulsions leading to the dacay of Be-8. Surprisingly in the same group of parallelepipeds you can see the magic nucleus O-16. In this case one observes that it has two inner squares with two radial p-n bonds and two very strong axial bonds per nucleon which overcome the p-p and n-n repulsions for making a very stable nucleus. It is of interest to note that the heaviest magic nucleus, the Pb-208, belongs to a group of orthorhombic systems in which the core of 82 protons and 82 neutrons makes 48 blank positions for receiving the extra 48 neutrons. Such extra neutrons make extra two or three bonds with the protons of the core able to overcome the p-p and n-n repulsions for a very stable magic nucleus.
THE STRUCTURE OF MAGIC NUCLEI He-4, O-16 AND Pb-208