By Prof. L. Kaliambos (Natural Philosopher in New Energy)

18 March 2019

Historically after Planck's discovery of the quanta of energy E = hν (1900) in the progress of the quantum physics the name photon was given by Lewis (1926), since Planck in 1907 based
on Einstein’s correct equation E = mc^{2} wrote that the quantum of light
because of its energy E = hν does have a mass m = hν/c^{2}
providing also gravitational properties predicted by Newton and confirmed by Soldner in 1801. (Bending of light
from a distant star when it passes close to the sun). Nevertheless Einstein in his invalid special relativity (EXPERIMENTS REJECT RELATIVITY) tried to explain the increase of the electron mass by introducing the false hypothesis that the energy turns to the mass. In fact, in the Correct Compton effect the increase of the electron mass is due to the photon mass in accordance with my discovery of the LAW OF ENERGY AND MASS. Also in general
relativity (1915) under his quanta of fields without mass Einstein tried to explain the
bending of light by introducing the fallacious hypothesis that the bending of
light is due to a strange curvature of space. However after the experiments of
the Quantum Entanglement (1935) confirming Newton’s third law of instantaneous
action and reaction, Einstein himself in
1938 in his book “ The evolution of physics” (page 234) changed his ideas of
the quanta of fields without mass and accepted Newton’s prediction that light
consists of particles with gravitational properties: “A beam of light carries
energy and energy has mass. But every inertial mass is attracted by the
gravitational field, as inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent. A
beam of light will bend in a gravitational field exactly as a body would if
thrown horizontally with a velocity equal to that of light.”

Under this confusion I presented at
the international conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” (1993) my paper
of dipolic photons which in the photoelectric effect contribute not only to the
increase of the electron energy ΔΕ = hν but also to the increase of
the electron mass ΔΜ = m = hν/c^{2}, while in the
Newtonian Mechanics of conservative forces the mass of moving bodies remains
always constant.

So, in the photoelectric effect of non conservative forces Einstein should combine the Planck quanta of energy E = hν with the gravitational properties of light predicted by Newton to apply the two conservation laws of energy and mass given by my discovery of the law of photon-matter interaction

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

This law is applied also in the
Compton effect (correct Compton effect) under a length contraction
and a time dilation based on Newton’s third law. (Discovery of length contraction).
Nevertheless under the triumph of the
Newtonian Mechanics of conservative forces Einstein in his second and third
paper (explanation of the so-called Brownian motion) applied correctly the
kinetic theory of the Newtonian mechanics, because in the absence of photon
absorptions or emissions the inertial mass M_{o} of moving bodies which
is equal to the gravitational mass M_{g} is always constant. That is,
in the Newtonian mechanics of conservative forces the two conservation laws of
energy and mass are applied under the constant inertial mass M_{o}.
However in his fourth and fifth paper
of 1905 for the explanation of the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ and the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ at
high velocities of the Kaufmann experiment (1901), Einstein in the development
of his theory of relativity violated the
two conservation laws of energy and mass, because he did not follow the
hypothesis of the absorption of the so-called electromagnetic mass introduced
by J. J. Thomson, but the hypothesis of Lorentz (1904) who believed incorrectly
that the increase of the electron mass is due to the relative motion of the
electron with respect to Maxwell’s ether, though the experiment of
Michelson-Morley (1887) rejected the ether.
Note that after my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” (2003),
which led to my discovery of the new structure of protons and neutrons, today
it is well-known that the experiments reject Einstein. In this law of quantum physics since
the neutron (n = 1838.68 electrons) changes to proton (p = 1836.15 electrons) we
observe an electromagnetic energy of quarks Δw = 1.293 MeV corresponding to
the mass defect Δm = n-p = mass of 2.53 electrons. Thus according to the conservation law
of energy and mass Kaufmann in his experiment found that ΔΕ =
1.293 MeV and ΔΜ = mass of 2.53 electrons.
Therefore
in the absence of a detailed knowledge about the quarks discovered by Gell-Mann
(1964) Lorentz in 1904 under the influence of the invalid Maxwell’s fields
(experiments reject fields) believed incorrectly that Maxwell’s ether does
exist. In the same way Einstein in 1905 for the development of the theory of
special relativity used the same math of
Lorentz (based on ether) but he was in a hurry to replace the ether with an
observer. Thus later in his general relativity he reintroduced the ether. Under
such inconsistencies M. Barone and F. Selleri organized the international
conference of 1993. In the preface of
the “Frontiers of fundamental physics”(1994) edited by M. Barone and F. Selleri
we read that Einstein himself after 1916 radically modified his negative
attitude about the ether. For example Einstein in 1924 wrote: “According to
special relativity the ether remains still absolute because of its influence on
the inertia of bodies.”
Note that
also the experiments of the Doppler effect reject the ether, because the
relative motion of an observer with respect to the source of light gives always
the same results. Then when Michelson
and Einstein met briefly in 1931, Michelson remarked that he regretted that his
experiment might have been responsible for giving birth to such a
monster-referring to the special relativity. (MODERN PHYSICS, page 9).
Later after
the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935), which confirmed Newton’s
third law, Einstein in 1936 was doubtful about his gravitational waves of the
fallacious gravitational fields. In fact, LIGO teams in 2016 discovered not the
waves of Einstein’s fallacious gravitational fields but the quantum gravitational waves.
On the other hand despite the experiments, which rejected
the ether, Einstein continued to support the ether but providing confusing ideas. For
example in 1938 in his book (page 160) he wrote that the ether is continued by
the relativity theory. Nevertheless on page 183 Einstein tried to support the
Michelson experiment about the death of the ether by writing:
“In view of the small
time-differences following from the theory, very ingenious experimental
arrangements have to be thought out. This was done in the famous Michelson-
Morley experiment. The result was a verdict of death to the theory of a calm
ether-sea through which all matter moves. No dependence of the speed of light
upon direction could be found. Not only the speed of light, but also other
field phenomena would show a dependence on the direction in the moving c.s., if
the theory of the ether-sea were assumed. Every experiment has given the same
negative result as the Michelson-Morley one, and never revealed any dependence
upon the direction of the motion of the earth.”
Under this confusion Einstein in the
same book then tried to identify the ether with vacuum. So on page 172 he
writes: “We remember that the velocity of light in vacuum, or in other words,
in ether, is 186,000 miles per second and that light is an electromagnetic wave
spreading through the ether. The electromagnetic field carries energy which,
once emitted from its source, leads an independent existence. For the time
being, we shall continue to believe that the ether is a medium through which
electromagnetic waves, and thus also light waves, are propagated, even though
we are fully aware of the many difficulties connected with its mechanical
structure.” Under such difficulties Einstein abandoned the observer of
his first paper of special relativity and in order to defend the special
relativity in terms of an ether as a property of vacuum on page 184 he wrote:
“ Our attempts to discover the
properties of the ether led to difficulties and contradictions. After such bad
experiences, this is the moment to forget the ether completely and to try never
to mention its name. We shall say: our space has the physical property of
transmitting waves, and so omit the use of a word we have decided to avoid.”
Some obvious inconsistencies
are observed also between Einstein’s first and fifth paper of 1905. Einstein in
his first paper used the conservation law of energy confirmed by the
experiments of Joule (1847). That is, hν = ΔΕ,
(Nobel prize, 1921), by introducing the hypothesis that light consists of
quanta of Maxwell’s fields without mass. However after 33 years in his book of
1938 (page 275) he changed those ideas
by writing:
“Newton's theory was dead and, until
our own century, its revival was not taken seriously. To keep the principal
idea of Newton's theory, we must assume that homogeneous light is composed of
energy-grains and replace the old light corpuscles by light quanta, which we
shall call photons, small portions of energy, travelling through empty space
with the velocity of light. The revival of Newton's theory in this new form
leads to the quantum theory of light.”
On the other hand in his fifth paper
he applied Newton’s second law for deriving his incomplete equation E = mc^{2}
although he believed that the Newtonian Mechanics cannot be applied at high
velocities. So he violated the conservation law of energy by introducing the
fallacious hypothesis that the mass turns to energy. Especially he wrote: “If a
body gives off energy E in the form of radiation, its mass diminishes by E/c^{2}.”
However in 1913 Bohr discovered that
the energy hν = 13.6 eV of the emitting photon in the formation of the hydrogen atom
is due not to the change of mass to the form of radiation. Instead, according
to the conservation law of energy the energy hν 13.6 eV is due to the electric energy ΔΕ =
13.6 eV of the electron-proton interaction. That is, ΔΕ = hν =
13.6 eV. (Nobel prize, 1922). Under this condition in the description of the
Bohr model in which Bohr applied the conservation law of energy rejecting the
relation E = mc^{2}, Einstein in 1938 abandoned his hypothesis of 1905 that
the mass turns to energy and on page 282 of his book he wrote: “From the energy
principle it must follow that the energy level of an atom is higher before
emission and lower afterwards, and that the difference between the two levels
must be equal to the energy of the emitted photon."
In fact, according to the law of
photon-matter interaction the very small mass defect ΔΜ =
13.6 eV/c^{2} turns to the mass m = hν/c^{2} of the emitting
photon in accordance with the two conservation laws of energy and mass.
In the same way after my paper of
2003 today it is well-known that the strong electromagnetic binding energy ΔΕ=
2.2246 MeV of the deuteron turns into the energy hν of
the emitting photon. Whereas the so-called mass defect ΔΜ,
which is equal to the mass of 4.3534 electrons, turns to the photon mass.