8 January 2019

**AFTER MY PAPER "NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM**" **TODAY IT IS WELL KNOWN THAT ALL EXPERIMENTS OF ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS INVALIDATE EINSTEIN'S WRONG IDEAS. (EXPERIMENTS REJECT RELATIVITY). FOR EXAMPLE IN THE CORRECT BOHR MODEL THE EXPERIMENTS OF THE IONIZATION OF HYDROGEN SHOWED THAT THE ENERGY OF PHOTON IS DUE NOT TO THE MASS DEFFECT BUT TO THE ELECTRIC ENERGY ΔΕ = 13.6 eV OF THE ELECTRON-PROTON INTERACTION IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONSERVATION LAW OF ENERGY. (NOBEL PRIZE 1922). ALSO ACCORDING TO THE CONSERVATION LAW OF MASS THE MASS DEFECT TURNS TO THE PHOTON MASS. IN THE SAME WAY AFTER MY DISCOVERY OF THE NEW ENERGY IN NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IN THE FORMATION OF DEUTERON THE ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY ΔΕ = 2.2246 ΜeV OF THE INTERACTING CHARGE DISTRIBUTIONS IN NUCLEONS TURNS TO THE ENERGY OF PHOTON, WHILE THE MASS DEFECT TURNS TO THE PHOTON MASS. **

Today writing in Google "Natural philosophy Wiki" one can see that in the category: NEW ENERGY is described the abstract of my paper “Impact of

Maxwell’s …dipolic particles” presented at the

international conference "Frontiers of fundamental

physics" (Olympia1993) organized by the physicists M. Barone and F. Selleri

The paper invalidates Maxwell’s fields and Einstein's relativity, because the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) showed that the basic postulation of Maxwell's fields moving through a fallacious ether (displacement current) involves misconceptions.Thus Einstein's massless quanta of the invalid fields could not explain correctly the photoelectric effect. (Correct explanation of photoelectric effect). This new energy of photon-matter interaction invalidates the wrong relativity which violates the two conservation laws of mass and energy. (EINSTEIN'S WRONG ASSUMPTIONS IN SPECIAL RELATIVITY). In fact, light consists of my discovery of dipolic photons having mass. For example the gravitational properties of light predicted by Newton were confirmed my soldner in 1801. Also Planck in 1907 based on Einstein's famous equation E = mc^{2} in order to interpret the gravitational properties of light showed that his quanta of energy E = hν do have mass. Thus the photon absorption contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy but also to the increase of the electron mass. In the same way in the correct Compton effect of the Quantum Physics of non conservative forces we see that the electron variable mass M compared with the constant inertial mass M_{o} of the Newtonian Mechanics is given by

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2 }/(c^{2} – u^{2}) or M/M_{o} = c/(c^{2}- u^{2})^{0.5}

In other words in the systems of non conservative forces the electron cannnot move at the speed of light because it absorbs the mass of photons. (LAW OF PHOTON - MATTER INTERACTION).

Note that in the Newtonian Mechanics of conservative forces (in the absence of absorption or emission of photons) the inertial mass M_{o} of moving bodies is always constant under an absulute time predicted by Newton for the systems of conservative forces. In this case when the potential energy turns to the kinetic energy the inertial mass is always constant. Whereas in the systems of non conservative forces of Quantum Physics I discovered that during the absorption of photons by the electrons the energy and the photon mass give off the energy ΔΕ and the mass ΔΜ of the electron under a quantum length contraction and a quantum time dilation which cannot be related with wrong ideas of Einstain about the space and time. (DISCOVERY OF LENGTH CONTRACTION). Note that Russel in the conclusions of his book "A History of western philosophy" (1945) wrote that the new philosophy developed in Quantum Physics would have to move away from Einstein's space-time. (HAWKING EINSTEIN RUSSELL)..

Then, after my discovery of the nuclear structure and force (2003) in which the new energy is due to the electromagnetic interaction of considerable charge distributions in nucleons I showed also that in the neutron decay the increase of the electron mass in the Kaufmann experiment (1901) is due to the mass deffect Δm = mass of 2.53 electrons, when the unstable neutron turns to the stable proton.

In my discovery of the new structure of protons and neutrons given by

**Proton**

**(p) = [ 93(dud) + 5d + 4u ] = 288 quarks = mass of 1838.68 electrons**

** **

**Neutron (n) = [ 92(dud) + 4u + 8d ] = 288 quarks = mass of 1836.15 electrons**

one can see that n-p = mass of 2.53 electrons . Note that my paper “ Nuclear structure... electromagnetism” presented also at a nuclear conference held at NCSR "Demokritos",(2002). At the same conference the eminent physicist Dr T. Kalogeopoulos (student of Einstein) came from Princeton University to present work. (See in photo with his walking stick next to me in my article Einstein Nuclear Physics). As an Einstein student he initially critisized my discovery of the LAW OF ENERGY AND MASS which invalidates Einstein's wrong ideas about the convertion of mass to energy in nuclear phenomena.(Invalid mass-energy conservation).

In fact, the nuclear binding is based on my discovery of 9 extra charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron, which give considerable charge distributions in nucleons interacting electromagnetically for giving the nuclear structure. (CORRECT NUCLEAR BINDING). Thus the idea of Einstein about the so-called mass-energy conservation is wrong because here the electromagnetic energy turns into the energy of generated photons, while the mass defect turns into the mass of photons, in accordance with the conservation law of mass as in the case of the Bohr model.

See in User Kaliambos the above published papers presented also at the conference held at NCSR "Democritos" along with my additional published paper “Spin-spin interactions of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures”(2008).

**After my papers of 1993, 2003, and 2008 today it is well known that all experiments of modern physics invalidate Einstain's wrong relativity. (EXPERIMENTS REJECTING EINSTEIN). Hence today the criticism of Einstein's ideas based not on laws but on hypotheses misleads the readers and does much to retard the progress of physics. For example after the IKARUS experiment (March 2012) which refuted the OPERA results by measuring neutrino velocities less than light, physicists believe that Einstein's ideas will be correct forever. Note that in my paper CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS (May, 2012) I noticed that it confirms not Einstein's ideas but the new energy of the Law of Energy and Mass. Under this confusion and though all experiments of atomic and nuclear physics reject Einstein today many physicists influenced by the wrong ideas of Einstein continue to believe that the theory of reletivity cannot be overthrown by the experiments. For example the article "Criticism of the theory of relativity-WIKIPEDIA" starts as :"There are still some critics of relativity today, but their opinions are not shared by the majority in the scientific community." **

**SINCE MODERN THEORIES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WRONG RELATIVITY ARE BASED ON THE INVALID FIELDS, I PRESENT HERE MY ARTICLE " WRONG EINSTEIN" WHICH DESCRIBES THE CRISIS OF FIELDS AND OF RELATIVITY BY REVIVING THE NATURAL LAWS. HISTORICALLY, THE REJECTION OF NEWTON’S PARTICLES OF LIGHT LED TO FALSE IDEAS OF ETHER, FIELDS, AND EINSTEIN’S RELATIVITY, VIOLATING NOT ONLY THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY (IN THE INDUCTION LAW) BUT ALSO THE CONSERVATION LAWS OF MASS AND ENERGY. SO EINSTEIN'S FALSE "MASS-ENERGY EQUIVALENCE" (INVALID REST ENERGY) LED TO SEVERAL WRONG THEORIES LIKE THE THEORY OF THE HIGGS FIELD (INVALIDITY OF HIGGS BOSON), BECAUSE ENERGY DOES NOT TURN TO MASS. MOREOVER THE FIELDS VIOLATE NEWTON'S THIRD LAW OF INSTANTANEOUS ACTION AND REACTION CONFIRMED BY THE EXPERIMENTS OF QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT. (SEE ALSO MY PAPER OUR EARLY UNIVERSE ).**

**MY DISCOVERY OF THE LAW OF PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION INVALIDATES EINSTEIN’S WRONG RELATIVITY**

Einstein in his special relativity starts with the wrong assumption that a moving magnet with respect to a conductor produces the false electric field E of Maxwell which violates not only Newton's third law but also the principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws. In this case Faraday in his results wrote that the induction law is due to a magnetric force. Also Neumann in his experiments of 1845 showed experimentally that the electric current is due to the magnetic force of the Ampere law.(REVIEW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORIES).

Under this obvious crisis due to fields and to relativity in 1993 I presented my discovery of the dipole nature of photon according to which a spinning photon has a mass with opposite charges producing electromagnetic forces at the speed of light c in terms of electric and magnetic intensities E_{y}and B

_{z}.(INTENSITY AND FALSE FIELD). In this direction following Newton’s great work and the laws of Coulomb and Ampere I applied the natural laws when a photon of variable mass m with opposite charges interacts with an electron of charge (-e) as

E_{y}(-e)dy = dw and B_{z}(-e)(dy/dt) = F_{m} or B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m}dt = dp = dmc

Since Weber (1856) discovered experimentally that E_{y}/B_{z} = c we get

dw/dm = c^{2} or hν/m = c^{2}

This simple formula modifies Einstein’s theory of light (1905), because the absorbed photon by an electron contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in accordance with my discovery of the law of photon-matter interaction given by

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔM = c^{2}

Here I emphasize that the dipolic photon under the laws of electromagnetism moves at the speed of light c, since the electric intensity E_{y} and the magnetic intensity B_{z} occur at the same time. But when the dipolic photon interacts with the electron according to the same laws of electromagnetism the magnetic force because of the velocity dy/dt should appear after the electric force. However in the Quantum Physics simultaneity must occur when dy/dt = 0 . Therefore in accordance with Newton's third law of simultaneity between two different forces we must observe a quantum lenght contraction (dy) and a quantum time dilation (dt).

Surprisingly the dipolic photon not only explains the electromagnetic properties of photons involving local time varying E_{y} and B_{z } produced by its charges but also it provides gravitational properties due to its mass m. Recall that the energy hν without mass cannot exist. For example applying Newton’s second law when the simple gravitational force F_{g} acts along the direction of the constant c we see that the energy dw is given by

F_{g} ds= dw = (dp/dt)ds = (dmc/dt)ds = dmc^{2} or hν/m = c^{2}

which explains the gravitational red shift. Note that Einstein in the development of his general relativity did not use his wrong relativistic equations but the simple Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics.

This simple formulation of the variable mass and energy of photon is similar to Einstein’s equation. However Einstein’s equation was incomplete, since his wrong relativistic mass is based on the false hypothesis of motions relative to a randomly moving observer. In fact, the increase of mass of particles in accelerators is due to the absorption of non mechanical energies. Note that all non mechanical energies on our earth (responsible of our life) are the result of the absorption of photons during the well-known photosynthesis. In other words both special and general relativity cannot replace the natural laws.

According to Newton’s second law when a particle of mass M absorbs the photon mass m and increases its mass, also the increase of energy dW is given by

dW = (dp/dt) ds = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = (dMu + duM)u

because M and u are variable quantities due to the absorption of both energy and mass of photon. It means that the mass of the particle increases under the absorption of the photon mass by applying Newton’s laws, **while Einstein believed (incorrectly) that Newton’s laws are a limited case of his special and general relativity**. Thus physicist believe that natural laws are only approximations of Einstein’s special and general relativity. In “Physical law-**WIKIPEDIA**” one reads: “**Newtonian mechanics is the low speed of special relativity… and.. the Newtonian gravitation law is a low-mass approximation of general relativity”. **

The first experiment which showed the increase of of the electron mass in the neutron decay was that of Kaufmann (1901).

Kaufmann soon tried to interpret his results by using the so-called electromagnetic mass proposed by Thomson (1881) and other physicists. Of course such a useful interpretation based on the conservation law of mass could be able for revealing the photon mass which leads to the Photon-Matter Interaction under the quantum dynamics. It is indeed unfortunate that Einstein did not follow the conservation laws of energy and mass with the useful ideas of the electromagnetic mass but the wrong idea of the Lorentz fallacious ether. (Invalid Lorentz transformations).So he developed a **wrong relativistic mass in motion relative to a moving observer**, which violates the conservation laws of mass and energy.

In fact, in the Newtonian Mechanics of conservative forces all objects on the earth or on a train moving with a constant velocity (reference frame of the Galilean relativity principle) under the gravity ( in the absence of any absorption of photons) have always not a relativistic mass but a constant inertial mass M_{o}. That is, in the Newtonian mechanics the conservation law of energy under the correct Galilean relativity is given by

M_{o}gH = M_{o} u^{2}/2

Of course it is always correct, when the system is conservative, because all natural laws are the same in all inertial frames. Whereas Einstein’s a stationary observer on the earth will measure incorrectly an increase of mass on the moving body based on the fallacious Lorentz transformations.** **

Also for a photon when the velocity c is perpendicular to the gravitational force the photon accelerates with a constant mass m_{o} . In this case the energy dw is given by

F_{g}ds = dw = (dp/dt)ds = (m_{o}du/dt)ds = m_{o}udu.

That is, in this case the photon mass m_{o }behaves like the constant mass M_{o} of a particle moving in the systems of conservative forces. Of course, this fact invalidates the second postulation of Einstein that the velocity of light is always constant and his concept of rest mass M_{o} (WRONG REST MASS). It also invalidates the Einstein massless photon of his general relativity. This is the bending of light which predicted by Newton. At the conclusion of his Opticks in 1704 Newton proposed the following query: * “Do not bodies act upon Light at a distance, and by their action bend its Rays, and is not this action strongest at the least distance?” *Note that such a prediction of the photon mass was confirmed by Soldner (1801). Unfortunately under the influence of the fallacious Maxwell’s fields Einstein believed that the photon is a massless particle. So he could not accept a gravitational mass able to interact with the mass of stars.

However Einstein himself in 1938 in his book "The evolution of physics" (page 234) wrote that photons because of their energy have mass responsible for the bending of light near the sun. Especially he wrote: "**A beam of light carries energy and energy has mass. But every inertial mass is attracted by the gravitational field, as inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent. A beam of light will bend in a gravitational field exactly as a body would if thrown horizontally with a velocity equal to that of light." **

**Photon**-

**WIKIPEDIA**” (Experimental checks of photon mass) one reads this question: “

*.*

**If the photon is not a strictly massless particle, it would not move at the exact speed of light in vacuum”**In fact, the photon of mass m = hν/c^{2} moves always at the speed of light, while an electron cannot move as fast as the speed of light because it absorbs the photon mass. Also in my research of new energy (1993) I showed that the speed c of a dipolic photon is due to the electric (K) and magnetic (k) constants. For example Weber in 1856 showed experimentaly that K/k = c^{2}.

On the other hand the red shift is derived by using the gravitational forces of Newton on the real mass m of photon. For example when a photon moves along the level difference H like a falling body the energy is given by

ΔW = Δmc^{2 } or mgH = Δmc^{2}

Since Δm = hδν/c^{2} and m = hν/c^{2} we get

Δm/m = gH/c^{2} = δν/ν

Here one can see that this changing is similar to the opposite well-known gravitational red shift experiment performed by the Pound-Rebka (1959). Of course it is derived simply by the application of Newton’s second law and invalidates the idea that it is a result of Einstein’s wrong special relativity.

Finally in **WIKIPEDIA** we see also that Einstein proposed the gravitational waves under the assumption that Newton's third law of instantaneous action and reaction is invalid. For example In the “Gravitational wave-**WIKIPEDIA**” we read: **"Newton's law of universal gravitation, part of classical mechanics, does not provide for their existence, since that law is predicated on the assumption that physical interactions propagate instantaneously (at infinite speed)**." In fact the LIGO team in 2016 discovered the quantum gravitational waves which cannot be related with Einstein's gravitational waves moving through the invalid fields. (Spacetime ripples of laws).

**THE DISCOVERY OF THE ELECTRON SPIN INVALIDATES EINSTEIN'S WRONG IDEAS**

In my paper of 2008 I showed that the coupling of two electrons in orbitals is due to the peripheral velocities of spinning electrons which are greater than c , since the photons cannot affect the peripheral velocity. Especially this situation explains the coupling of opposite spinning electrons for making the covalent bonds in molecules, and the binding of spinning quarks, since the magnetic attraction of opposite spin is stronger than the electric repulsion. (See in Google my scientific article “QUARKS, NEUTRINOS, NUCLEONS, AND NUCLEI”).

In that paper I showed that two electrons of mass m and of opposite spin interact giving a repulsive electric force F_{e} and an attractive magnetic force F_{m} whose the resultant force F_{em} is given by

F_{em} = F_{e} - F_{m} = Ke^{2}/r^{2} - (Ke^{2}/r^{4})(9h^{2}/16π^{2}m^{2}c^{2})

Of course for F_{e} = F_{m} one gets the equilibrium separation

r_{o} = 3h/4πmc = 0.5788/10^{12} m

That is, for r<r_{o} the two electrons behave like one particle and exert an attractive F_{em} with a motional emf of the induction law. After a detailed analysis of many two-electron atoms we concluded that it produces a vibration energy E_{v} given by

E_{v} = 16.95Z - 4.1

Thus, using the Bohr model the ground state energy E of the simple Helium atom is given by

E = 2(-13.6)Z^{2} +(16.95Z - 4.1) = -79 eV

which is equal to the experimental result. Under this condition since the two electrons behave like one particle the Schrodinger equation is applied correctly for giving the same wave function as that of the one-electron atoms. Here the Pauli exclusion principle with two electrons of oposite spin S= 0 is just a qualitative approach because it cannot be applied in the structure of deuteron with parallel spin (S=1).

Note that the discovery of the electron spin by Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit (1925) which involves peripheral velocity greater than the speed of light (FASTER THAN LIGHT) met opposition from many physicists including Pauli, because it rejects Einstein's wrong relativity. The pressure was so great that Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit wanted to withdraw the paper they had submitted. However it was too late to do so, because their adviser P. Ehrenfest had already sent the paper for publication. He said: “* You are both young enough to allow yourselves some foolishness! Be a little crazy*”. Later under the influence of Einstein’s relativity Pauli in 1946 said: “

*”. Of course such an idea did much to retard the progress of physics and led to the development of wrong theories, which could not solve the problem of the Helium ground state energy. Whereas our applications of laws which give u>c explain the atomic and nuclear phenomena in accordance with the experiments.*

**I strongly doubted the correctness of this idea (spin) because of its classical mechanical character**