By Prof. Lefteris Kaliambos (Natural Philosopher in New Energy)

August 17 , 2015

Historically, Descartes in his *Optics* (1637) proposed that light is associated with a medium called “ether” used also later by Maxwell (1865) in his electromagnetic theory of wrong fields moving through the Cartesian ether. Note that Maxwell's fields violate not only the gravitational properties of Newton's corpuscles, confirmed by Soldner in 1801, but also Newton's third law of instantaneous action-reaction confirmed by the famous experiments of the Quantum Entanglement. On the other hand although the concept of ether had a considerable influence on the ideas of physicists at that time, Newton in his* Opticks* (1704) concluded that the Cartesian theory of light could not account for* polarization*. This would be easy enough to understand if light is a stream of rectangular particles moving in vacuum but rather more difficult if light is a wave disturbance in a medium. In spite of Newton’s criticism, other scientists such as Hooke and Huygens continued to think of light in terms of impulses in a medium. This was not yet the “wave theory” in the modern sense, because the periodic nature of the pulses had not yet been recognized; ironically it was Newton who suggested that light might have to be somehow assigned also periodic properties in order to account for the phenomena of colors.

Unfortunately Young (1803) who confirmed the wave nature of light abandoned Newton’s corpuscular theory in favor of the Huygens theory which led to Maxwell’s wrong fields moving through the Cartesian ether (1865) and to Einstein's quanta of fields without mass (1905). Earlier (1832) Faraday tried to explain his induction by using a wrong concept of field. However, scientists at the time widely rejected such a concept of field. An exception was Maxwell, who used Faraday's wrong concept of field as the basis of his electromagnetic theory. Though Franz Ernst Neumann in 1845 showed experimentally that the Faraday induction is consistent with the magnetic force of the Ampere law, in Maxwell's papers, the time-varying aspect of the Faraday induction is expressed as a differential equation which Oliver Heaviside referred to as Faraday's law even though it is different from the original version of Faraday's law, and does not describe motional EMF which is the result of a magnetic force acting at a distance. For example in the Encyclopedia.com we read :

"**Neumann and his contemporary Wilhelm Weber were the founders of the electrodynamic school in Germany, which later included, among others, Riemann, Betti, Carl Neumann, and Lorenz. The investigations and analyses of this group were guided by the assumption, held originally by Ampère, that electromagnetic phenomena resulted from direct action at a distance rather than through the mediation of a field**."

Note also that the concept of ether was rejected by the experiment of Michelson and Morley (1887) in favor of Newton’s rectangular particles of light with gravitational properties . Under this condition Planck in 1907 showed that his quanta of energy E = hν do have mass for the interpretation of the bending of photons near the sun. Nevertheless Einstein in general relativity (1915) continued to believe that light consists of quanta of fields without mass and tried to interpret the bending of his quanta of fields without mass by introducing the strange hypothesis of the curvature of space (EXPERIMENTS REJECT RELATIVITY). You can see also my article CONTRADICTING RELATIVITY THEORIES because Einstein in his general relativity abandoned the relative motion with respect to an observer by reintroducing the fallacious ether of Maxwell. However later (1938) in his book "The evolution of physics" (page 234) abandoned also the strange hypothesis of the curvature of space by accepting Newton's corpuscles:

"**A beam of light carries energy and energy has mass. But every inertial mass is attracted by the gravitational field, as inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent. A beam of light will bend in a gravitational field exactly as a body would if thrown horizontally with a velocity equal to that of light**. "

Under this physics crisis I presented at the international conference "Frontiers of fundamental physics" (1993) my paper " Impact of Maxwell's equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles" . It is of interest to note that the gravitational and electromagnetic properties of light led to my discovery of the photon mass and of the dipole nature of photons, which also led me to discover the unification of the forces of laws, while Maxwell's wrong fields lead to complications.

**UNIFIED FORCES OF THE WELL-ESTABLISHED LAWS OF COULOMB AND AMPERE REJECT FIELDS**

Prior to 1820 electric and magnetic forces were regarded as two separate interactions . That year, Oersted demonstrated that an electric current generates a magnetic force which led to the discovery of the Ampere law (1820) of the magnetic force acting at a distance. Later Weber (1856) found experimentally that the constants K and k of electric and magnetic forces respectively are given by the simple relation K/k = c^{2 }where c is the speed of light . Thus, for simplicity, when a dipole with opposite charges (+q and -q) moves at a velocity u, with respect to the source , and the dipole axis r is perpendicular to the velocity the two basic laws of Coulomb and Ampere give F_{e} and_{ } F_{m } acting at a distance as:

F_{e }= Kq^{2}/r^{2} and F_{m} = kq^{2}u^{2}/r^{2} . So F_{e}/F_{m} = c^{2}/u^{2} .

This simple result of unified forces of laws acting at a distance led me to develop the model of dipolic particles or dipolic photons, since for u = c the moving dipole gives time varying

E_{y}/B_{z} = c

However today many physicists believe that Maxwell was the first who unified the electric and magnetic phenomena. In fact, he used Faraday’s wrong concepts of fields and Weber’s correct experiments on electromagnetism. Maxwell in his paper "* A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field*" goes on to discuss some of his results in the following paragraphs: “The

**conception of the propagation of transverse magnetic disturbances to the exclusion of normal ones is distinctly set forth by Professor Faraday in his**

*Thoughts on Ray Vibrations*... and that the velocity of propagation is the velocity υ found from experiments such as those of Weber...”

Unfortunately though Newton’s particles of light were confirmed by Soldner (1801) at the beginning of the 20^{th} century Einstein after the abandonment of Newton’s particles of light and following Faraday’s and Maxwell’s wrong concepts of fields developed his massless quanta of fields which led to his invalid theories of special and general relativity by assuming that relative motions are responsible for the increase of the mass of particles and fields can produce curvatures of vacuum etc.

In fact, the increase of the electron mass in the photoelectric effect is due to the absorption of the photon mass, because the opposite charges of the dipolic photon interact weakly with the charge (-e) of the electron like the neutrino-quark interaction. Hence, the so-called “*relativistic *mass*”* is a fallacious concept because the theory of relative motions with* *respect to a randomly moving observer leads to complications.(See my PHOTON OF LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS ).

**ELECTROMAGNETIC AND GRAVITATIONAL PROPERTIES OF PHOTONS LED TO MY DISCOVERY OF UNIFIED FORCES OF LAWS WHILE MAXWELL'S WRONG FIELDS LEAD TO COMPLICATIONS**

It is of interest to note that Newton’s predictions of gravitational interactions of his particles of light led to my discovery of the photon mass m = hν/c^{2} which invalidates Einstein’s relativity with a fallacious curvature of vacuum. For example in quantum dynamics when the gravitational force F_{g }acting on the photon mass is parallel to the velocity c, the mass of the dipolic photon increases under the applications of Newton’s second law. That is, in this direction of gravitational interactions a photon has a variable mass which differs fundamentally from the constant inerial mass of particles. However, when F_{g }acts in perpendicular direction to the velocity c the mass of the dipolic photon is accelerated and remains constant like the constant inertial mass of all particles. (bending of light). Einstein under his massless quanta of fields sought to unify the electromagnetic and gravitational interactions in terms of fields , but without success.

Until about 1980 it was assumed that unification of forces required that gravity be reformulated within the context of Einstein’s relativity but all attempts to construct a relativistic theory of gravity failed dismally.

In a correct way (without using fallacious theories) I found a relationship between electromagnetic and gravitational forces by using the PHOTON OF LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS since a photon has a mass m of opposite charges. For example when the opposite charges of such a photon interact with an electron we get

dw/dm = c^{2}

by using the interaction in terms of E_{y} and B_{z} as:

E_{y} (-e)dy = dw and B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m} dt = dp = cdm.

Since E_{y}/B_{z} = c we get dw/dm = c^{2} = hν/m

Surprisingly we see that the gravitational force F_{g }due to the mass m of photons interacting with a mass M of a massive star is able to give the same result dw/dm = c^{2} which means that, under the quantum physics, gravity and electromagnetism are unified correctly.

This is the well-known gravitational blue shift when a photon moves toward a massive star. That is, because of the **variable photon mass**, which differs fundamentally from the constant inertial mass of particles, one observes a blue shift energy hδν. Of course it is similar to the kinetic energy of a simple particle of constant mass accelerated in a gravitational field. Note that Einstein in his general relativity used incorrectly his relativistic accelerations of particles which lead to complications, because he believed incorrectly that in nature there is a universal principle of relativity giving always his relativistic accelerations. So, under such wrong axioms he thought that the fundamental Newtonian accelerations in gravity are a limited case of his conclusions.(See my INVALID GENERAL RELATIVITY ). In fact, we can see just the opposite situation, because applications of Newton’s laws give the general correct results of both the kinetic energy of particles and the gravitational frequency shift of photons as:

F_{g}ds = dw = ( dp/dt) ds = [d(mu)/dt]ds = [m(du/dt) +u(dm/dt)]ds

In Newton's own formulation of the second law, he states that the force acting on a body is equal to the change of its momentum F = d(mu)/dt. But it was far more convinient to use the rate of change of motion. It is a very simple version F = m(du/dt) formalized by the Swiss mathematician Euler(1750), because physicists did not know that Newton's particles of light have a variable mass able to give an energy of blue shift similar to the kinetic energy of particles having a constant inertial mass.

For a particle with a constant inertial mass m_{o} we use the well known first term, because the gravitational interaction affects the velocity u. This leads to the fundamental formula F_{g }= m_{o}a = GmM/r^{2 }which covers all accelerations, no matter what is the velocity of the particle. Whereas Einstein’s the so-called relativistic accelerations are due to the limited case. In fact, in quantum dynamcs when the photons are absorbed by the particles they give off their mass to particles under my discovery of the Photon-Matter Interaction.

Note that for a dipolic photon operating at c with electric attraction equal to magnetic repulsion that is F_{e} = F_{m }the velocity c in free space cannot be affected by F_{g} and remains constant. In the direction of the velocity c the speed of light is the result of the attractive F_{e} which is equal to the repulsive F_{m }. This equality gives the velocity c which is always perpendicular to the vectors of F_{e} and F_{m} . Whereas the speed c of a photon moving through the air is reduced, because the opposite charges of photons cause a polarization of molecules, which reduce the attractive electric forces of photons. In general, for a photon moving in free space since u = c we use the second term as:

F_{g}ds = dw = c(dm/dt)ds = dmc^{2} or dw/dm = c^{2 }= hν/m

This formula is very important because it unifies the gravity with the forces of electromagnetism. Moreover it leads us to calculate the gravitational frequency shift δν by using the height H of a homogeneous gravity . Since the photon has a variable mass the potential energy mgH can be transformed into the energy hδν. Thus we write:

mgH = hδν. Then comparing it with mc^{2 }= hν one gets δν/ν = gH/c^{2}

That is, the gravitational interaction explains the gravitational frequency shift, by using the second term of Newton’s second law.

We conclude also that all basic laws of Newton, Coulomb and Ampere providing forces acting at a distance lead to the law of Photon-Matter Transformation*. *For example in this case the applications of Newton’s second law give:

Fds = dw = (dp/dt)ds = [d(mu)/dt]ds = u(mdu +udm)

Since the experiments of Kaufmann showed that m^{2}/m_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

differentiation gives 2mdmc^{2} = 2udum^{2} + 2mdmu^{2}

or dmc^{2} = u(mdu +udm) = dw

Of course all these equal results of the applications of electromagnetism and Newton’s laws under the quantum physics led me to discover not only the unification of all forces but also the fundamental principle of *“*Matter –Photon Transformation*” *expressed by ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c^{2} which invalidates relativity.

Under this condition we analyze historically the wrong concepts of special and general theories of relativity with very simple mathematics in order to present carefully with understandable examples all the false assumptions of Einstein based on the wrong fields of Maxwell.