By Prof. Lefteris Kaliambos (Natural Philosopher in New Energy)

September 11 , 2015

Under the influence of the excellent math of the invalid Maxwell’s equations (1865) which led to Einstein’s false massless quanta of fields (EXPERIMENTS REJECT RELATIVITY), today many physicists, under the abandonment of the well-established laws of Coulomb(1785) and Ampere (1820) including forces acting at a distance, believe incorrectly that the electric and magnetic fields give the correct charge-charge interactions. Thus writing in Google “Wrong unified fields” one can see a large number of articles which describe the electromagnetic field as the Faraday property of space (1832) produced by the electric charges.

Historically, in attempting to explain how the induction law occurred, Faraday imagined that the space surrounding the magnet and the coil was in a state of tension, like stretch rubber bands; he called these bands “lines of force”. He believed that an electric current would be induced in a wire whenever the wire cut the hypothetical lines of force. Faraday went on to fill all space with these imaginary lines of force, and he believed that such space was basic to physical action.

However Franz Ernst Neumann in 1845 using the same experiments of Faraday showed that the current of the induction is due to the magnetic force of the well-established Ampere law acting at a distance in accordance with Newton'e third law of instantaneous action-reaction. For example in the Encyclopedia.com we read:

"**Neumann and his contemporary Wilhelm Weber were the founders of the electrodynamic school in Germany, which later included, among others, Riemann, Betti, Carl Neumann, and Lorenz. The investigations and analyses of this group were guided by the assumption, held originally by Ampère, that electromagnetic phenomena resulted from direct action at a distance rather than through the mediation of a field**." (See in photo Neumann).

On the other hand in the same year (1845) Faraday discovered the magnetic rotation of the plane of polarized light (Faraday effect). In other words he showed that Newton’s rectangular particles of light provide not only gravitational properties (confirmed by Soldner in 1801) but also electromagnetic properties. Under this condition he tried to find a relationship between the gravity and the electromagnetism but under his wrong concept of field he failed to find any connection between the hypothetical gravitational and electromagnetic fields.

It is indeed unfortunate that such a fallacious idea for connecting not the real forces of the well-established laws but the hypothetical properties of space became one of the deepest problems of science. For example Einstein influenced by the wrong Maxwell’s fields spent the latter part of his life searching for such a unified field theory, but was unsuccessful.

Although Neumann in 1845 showed experimentally that the induction law is consistent with the magnetic force of the Ampere law, later Maxwell (1865) for developing his electromagnetic theory proposed two wrong postulations which violate the Faraday induction law and the Ampere law. Thus he proposed the wrong electromagnetic fields moving through a fallacious ether. Note that the Maxwellian ether was rejected by the two American physicists Michelson and Morley (1887), while the two American physicists French and Tessman in 1963 showed experimentally the fallacy of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory. Moreover the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement confirmed the fundamental action at a distance proposed by Newton in his well-established laws.

Unfortunately, later the same problems occurred in the nuclear physics, because the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron (1932) led to the same abandonment of the well-established laws of electromagnetism in favor of wrong theories describing the so-called strong and weak interactions of the wrong standard model which could not lead to the discovery of the nuclear force and structure.

A fallacious idea in this direction was the invalid electroweak theory developed in the late 1970s by Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg.
For the explanation of the neutrino-quark interaction of weak electromagnetic
interaction similar to the photon-matter interaction they proposed that the so-called weak force is mediated by the
particles of the CERN experiments called Z and W bosons of mass greater than
80,000 MeV/c^{2}. Here one sees
a strange idea how such very heavy particles can operate in a very small
distance inside the proton of mass M_{p} = 938.28 MeV/c^{2} .

Under this confusion, physicists have proposed several variants of theories called Grand Unified Theories and String theories in order to reduce the additional incorrect number of forces with their false mediators. A common wrong feature of the grand unified theories (GUTs) is that the false massless photon of Einstein and the fallacious massless gluons of the theory of the invalid quantum chromodynamics (1973) should appear as components of a fallacious single multicomponent field. A GUT did not , however, unify all the hypothetical fields.

On the other hand Theodor Kaluza, a German mathematician, proposed a scheme whereby Einstein’s invalid general relativity and the invalid Maxwell’s equations. Despite the enormous success of the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions, the scheme required appending a fallacious fifth dimension to the wrong four dimensions of Einstein’s space time. Five years later Oscar Klein suggested that the fifth dimension was “curled up” upon itself in a space so minute that it could not be observed. Then following the work of Dirac it was assumed that unification of fields required that gravity should be reformulated within the context of the false relativistic quantum theory. The marriage of quantum theory with gravity has proved a particularly difficult task, and until about 1980 all attempts to construct a quantum theory of gravity failed dismally. Then in the latter part of the 1970s, several theories resurrected the idea of a multidimensional manifold that had lain dormant for half a century. In the invalid string theories, quantum gravity, electromagnetism and the so-called weak and strong forces appeared as components of a fallacious ten-dimensional field.

That is, in the simple fundamental laws of gravity and electromagnetism providing forces acting at a distance physicists added complicated strong and weak forces mediated by fallacious fields, curved vacuum, and virtual photons with more false force carriers. To avoid such fallacious ideas of fields and of force carriers I presented at the international conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” (1993) my paper “Impact of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles”. In that paper I showed that laws and experiments invalidate fields and relativity.

Historically, Descartes in his Principles of Philosophy (1644) postulated that space is filled with pieces of matter that can interact only when they touch. What appear in Newton’s laws to be long –range forces acting across empty space, such as gravity (1687) would on Descartes’ view be explained by the propagation of impulses through an invisible ethereal matter that was imagined to fill the intervening space. With the words “I FEIGN NO HYPOTHESES” Newton in his Principia exempts himself from the obligation to account for the observed consequences of his law of gravity by additional hypotheses. On this basis Coulomb and Ampere formulated the laws of electric and magnetic forces respectively acting at a distance.

**UNIFIED FORCES OF THE WELL-ESTABLISHED LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM**

Prior to 1820 electric and
magnetic forces were regarded as two separate interactions . That year, Oersted
demonstrated that an electric current generates a magnetic force . Later Weber
(1856) found experimentally that the constants K and k of electric and
magnetic forces respectively are given by the simple relation K/k = c^{2 }where c
is the speed of light . In my paper of 1993 I showed that light consists not of
Einstein’s massless quanta of fields but of dipole photons which move at the
speed of light as spinning electric dipoles. For simplicity, when a dipole with
opposite charges (+q and -q) moves at a velocity u, and the dipole axis r
is perpendicular to u, the two basic laws of Coulomb and Ampere give
F_{e} and_{ } F_{m } acting at
a distance as:

F_{e }= Kq^{2}/r^{2} and
F_{m} = kq^{2}u^{2}/r^{2} . So F_{e}/F_{m} = c^{2}/u^{2} .

This simple result of unified forces of laws acting at a distance led me to develop the model of dipolic particles or dipolic photons, since for u = c the moving dipole gives time varying

E_{y}/B_{z} =
c

However under the influence of the excellent math of Maxwell's equations today many physicists
believe that Maxwell was the first who unified the electric and magnetic
phenomena. In fact, he used Faraday’s wrong concepts of fields
and Weber’s correct experiments on electromagnetism. Maxwell in his paper
"* A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field*" goes
on to discuss some of his results in the following paragraphs: “

**The conception of the propagation of transverse magnetic disturbances to the exclusion of normal ones is distinctly set forth by Professor Faraday in his**

*Thoughts on Ray Vibrations*... and that the velocity of propagation is the velocity υ found from experiments such as those of Weber...”Unfortunately, though
Newton’s particles of light were confirmed by Soldner (1801) at the beginning
of the 20^{th} century Einstein after the abandonment of Newton’s
particles of light and following Faraday’s and Maxwell’s wrong
concepts of fields developed his massless quanta of fields which led to his
invalid theories of special and general relativity by assuming that
relative motions are responsible for the increase of the mass of particles and also fields can produce curvatures of vacuum etc.

In fact, the increase of
the electron mass in the correct explanation of photoelectric effect is due to the absorption of the
photon mass, because the opposite charges of the dipolic photon interact with
the charge of the electron. Hence, the so-called “*relativistic mass*” is
a fallacious concept because the theory of relative motions with respect to a
randomly moving observer leads to complications.

**ELECTROMAGNETIC AND GRAVITATIONAL PROPERTIES OF DIPOLE PHOTONS LED TO MY DISCOVERY OF UNIFIED FORCES OF LAWS**

It is of interest to
note that Newton’s predictions of gravitational interactions of his particles
of light led to my discovery of the photon mass m = hν/c^{2} which
invalidates Einstein’s relativity with a fallacious curvature of
vacuum. For example in quantum dynamics when the gravitational force F_{g }acting
on the photon mass is parallel to the velocity c, the mass of the dipole
photon increases under the applications of Newton’s second law. That is, in
this direction of gravitational interactions a photon has a variable mass which
differs fundamentally from the constant inerial mass of particles. However,
when F_{g }acts in perpendicular direction to the velocity c
the mass of the dipole photon is accelerated and remains constant like
the constant inertial mass of all particles. (bending of light). Einstein under
his massless quanta of fields sought to unify the electromagnetic and
gravitational interactions in terms of fields , but without success.

Later the assumed uncharged neutrons, photons, neutrinos, and antineutrinos complicated more the problem, because theoretical physicists abandoned the basic laws of electromagnetism in favor of unknown strong and weak forces mediated by virtual photons, gravitons, mesons, gluons, and bosons (W ,Z).

In fact, as in atoms and molecules, the nuclear structure is due to simple electromagnetic forces between the spinning nucleons having extra charged quarks able to interact electromagnetically for making the nuclear structure. Also the neutrinos and antineutrinos are absorbed by quarks like the absorptions of photons, because they have apposite charges and interact electromagnetically with the charged quarks . Of course these two simple cases invalidate the so-called strong and weak interactions.

In my paper "Nuclear structure...." (2002) I showed with a large number of differential equations that the so-called strong interaction is due to the electromagnetic forces of the basic laws of Coulomb and Ampere acting at a distance. This action leads correctly to the nuclear structure, while the wrong nuclear theories cannot lead to the nuclear structure.

Moreover the spinning photons of opposite charges give the same electromagnetic interactions like the neutrinos and antineutrinos which have opposite charges and interact electromagnetically with the spinning quarks in nucleons. Notice that fundamental particles like the spinning electrons, positrons, neutrinos, antineutrinos, up and down quarks, have peripheral velocities greater than the speed of light for giving magnetic attractions greater than the electric repulsions.(See my FASTER THAN LIGHT)

Until about 1980 it was assumed that unification of forces required that gravity be reformulated within the context of Einstein’s relativity but all attempts to construct a relativistic theory of gravity failed dismally.

In a correct
way (without using fallacious theories) I found a
relationship between electromagnetic and gravitational forces by using the
PHOTON OF LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS since a photon has a mass m of opposite
charges. For example when the opposite charges of such a photon interact
with an electron we get dw/dm = c^{2} by using the
interaction in terms of fields as:

E_{y} (-e) dy
= dw and B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m} dt = dp = cdm.

Since E_{y}/B_{z} =
c we get dw/dm = c^{2} = hν/m

Surprisingly we see that
the gravitational force F_{g }due to the mass m of photons
interacting with a mass M of a massive star is able to give the same result
dw/dm = c^{2} which means that, under the quantum physics,
gravity and electromagnetism are unified correctly.

This is the well known
gravitational blue shift when a photon moves toward a massive star. That is,
because of the **variable photon mass**, which differs fundamentally
from the constant inertial mass of particles, one observes a blue shift energy
hδν. Of course it is similar to the kinetic energy of a simple particle of
constant mass accelerated in a gravitational field. Note that Einstein in his
general relativity used incorrectly his relativistic accelerations of
particles which lead to complications, because he believed that in nature
there is a universal principle of relativity giving always his
relativistic accelerations. So, under such wrong axioms he thought that the
fundamental Newtonian accelerations in gravity are a limited case of his
conclusions. In fact, we can
see just the opposite situation, because applications of
Newton’s laws give the general correct results of both the kinetic energy
of particles and the gravitational frequency shift of photons as:

F_{g}ds = dw =
( dp/dt) ds = [d(mu)/dt]ds = [m(du/dt) +u(dm/dt)]ds

In Newton's own formulation of the second law, he states that the force acting on a body is equal to the change of its momentum F = d(mu)/dt. But it was far more convinient to use the rate of change of motion. It is a very simple version F = m(du/dt) formalized by the Swiss mathematician Euler(1750), because physicists did not know that Newton's particles of light have a variable mass able to give an energy of blue shift similar to the kinetic energy of particles having a constant inertial mass.

For a particle with a
constant inertial mass m_{o} we use the well-known first
term, because the gravitational interaction affects the velocity u. This leads
to the fundamental formula F_{g }= m_{o}a = GmM/r^{2 }which
covers all accelerations, no matter what is the velocity of the
particle. Whereas Einstein’s the so-called relativistic accelerations are
due to the limited case. In fact, in quantum dynamcs when the photons are
absorbed by the particles they give off their mass to particles under my
discovery of the Photon-Matter Interacrion.

Note that for a dipolic
photon operating at c with electric attraction equal to magnetic repulsion that
is F_{e} = F_{m }the velocity c in free
space cannot be affected by F_{g} and remains constant. In the
direction of the velocity c the speed of light is the result of the
attractive F_{e} which is equal to the repulsive F_{m }.
This equality gives the velocity c which is always perpendicular to the
vectors of F_{e} and F_{m} . Whereas the speed
c of a photon moving through the air is reduced, because the opposite
charges of photons cause a polarization of molecules, which reduce the
attractive electric forces of photons. In general, for a photon moving in
free space since u = c we use the second term as:

F_{g}ds =
dw = c(dm/dt)ds = dmc^{2} or dw/dm = c^{2 }=
hν/m

This formula is very
important because it unifies the gravity with the forces of electromagnetism.
Moreover it leads us to calculate the gravitational frequency shift δν by using the height H of a
homogeneous field . Since the **photon has a variable mass** the
potential energy mgH can be transformed into the energy hδν. Thus we write:

mgH = hδν. Then comparing it with mc^{2 }=
hν one gets δν/ν = gH/c^{2}

That is, the gravitational interaction explains the gravitational frequency shift, by using the second term of Newton’s second law.

Under this condition the
gravitational frequency shift δν/ν for
light emitted at the surface of a massive star, like a **NEUTRON STAR** **or a BLACK HOLE **,** is very important**
because in general gH leads to the GM/R, where M is the great mass of the
neutron star and R is its radius. In this case it is well-known that M of a neutron
star is greater than the mass of our sun, while the R is much smaller. Note
that Einstein in his general relativity ptoposed that such a sufficiently
compact mass will deform space and time to form a neutron star or a black hole.
Moreover Einstein suggested incorrectly that on the cosmic scale his curvuture
of vacuum might have the effect of making the universe finite though unbounded.
In fact, the formation of a neutron star is due to the characteristic
long-ranged gravitational attractions which are very important in very massive
stars. In our paper "Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws
of electromagnetism" we showed that the neutron stars are formed when the
long-ranged gravitational attraction overcomes the short-ranged repulsions
between neutrons. The opposite situation is observed in very heavy nuclei,
where the long-ranged electric repulsions of protons overcome the short-ranged
electromagnetic attractions of the proton-neutron systems and lead to the
decay.

We conclude also that all
basic laws of Newton, Coulomb and Ampere providing forces acting at a distance
lead to the law of *Photon-Matter Interaction*. For example in
this case the applications of Newton’s second law give:

Fds = dw = (dp/dt)ds = [d(mu)/dt]ds = u(mdu +udm)

Since the experiments of
Kaufmann showed that m^{2}/m_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

differentiation
gives 2mdmc^{2} = 2udum^{2} + 2mdmu^{2}

or dmc^{2} =
u(mdu +udm) = dw

Of course all these equal
results of the applications of electromagnetism and Newton’s laws under the
quantum physics led me to discover not only the unification of all forces but
also the fundamental principle of “*Matter –Photon Transformation*” expressed
by ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c^{2} which invalidates
relativity.

Under this condition we analyze historically the wrong concepts of special and general theories of relativity with very simple mathematics in order to present carefully with understandable examples all the false assumptions of Einstein.